Joiner's works Joiner's works in rural mestosti Works of the joiner Work of the joiner in a countryside

Boxes, covers, doors (ch. 11)


Sharnirnye of a loop do deaf and demountable, at the last on one end of a core screw a tip. Height of loops - 75-125мм, width of a card - 30-35мм. On such loops hang covers and doors. Sharnirnye loops of the smaller sizes apply to window leaves. The sizes of loops define, proceeding from massiveness of products, the sizes bruskov boxes and obvjazok.

The screw Core should enter densely enough into a loop aperture, and its head - in razzenkovannoe an aperture. When the core of a screw is a bit less than diameter of an aperture in a loop last will be unsteady, as though hardly it privertyvali. When the screw head acts over razzenkovannym an aperture covers or doors will spring and not to be covered densely.

Apply screws with flat, or secret, semicircular, or semisecret, heads: the first kind of screws - for all kinds of the works, the second and the third - for fastening of handles, added locks and other devices, that is there where acting heads will not prevent dense pritvoru shutters of covers of doors. Before zavertyvaniem a screw it is recommended in the aperture centre in a loop to pierce shilom rather narrow, with depth 10-15мм an aperture, slightly to hammer screw (on depth 5-7мм) and after that to screw it but not to hammer at all a hammer. It is impossible krepit loops nails.

If sharnirnye loops it is possible krepit both on left, and on the right shutter polusharnirnye loops are subdivided on right and left. On the left loop from outside razzenkovannyh apertures the core is at the left, and on right - on the right (fig. 78).

a Door hung on the right loops: and - the right loop; - the hung door

78. A door hung on the right loops :
And - the right loop; - the hung door

For a door opened on to the right, apply right polusharnirnye loops; for the shutters of a window aperture opening every which way (the winter open outside, and summer inside), - two pairs the left and right loops.

Thus, loops should be hung on their appointment. If the left loop to hang on the right shutter at shutter opening last will act in film from a loop under the influence of own weight, and it can lead to a trauma.

Naveshivanie of shutters or frames on loops begin with prirezki loops in a shutter. A loop put to brusku on such distance from the top or bottom end that it equaled to length of a loop, but under a condition that between a loop and an end face of thorns was not less 10мм, more - it is better. To kill loops on thorns, and also on knots and other defects of wood it is not recommended.

Having planned a pencil or shilom risks for a loop, a chisel cut out wood for a thickness of one card. Then put a loop, plan shilom places for screws and privertyvajut a loop in parallel an edge bruska. Having strengthened two loops on a shutter, them open, put to a box quarter, hardly press to a transom (a deaf frame - to the top quarter of a box) and outline a pencil or shilom, doing risks on which choose wood, forming dredging for a loop.

After that a shutter or a frame put to a box again so that loops have risen in nests, plan places for screws and privertyvajut each loop at first one screw. After naveshivanija two shutters check, how they are closed and open, carry out the necessary corrections, lowering, lifting or deepening a loop, and only after that wrap other screws.

At mass naveske doors or covers under loops it is possible to apply a template of joiner-innovator Pavlihina to a marking of places. It consists from wooden rejki to which two are attached skoby from a thin strip steel with the pointed edges. Skoby do on the size of loops and put in a proper place rejki. To one end face attach an emphasis. A template put to a shutter so that it was hooked by an emphasis for one end, strike on it kijankoj or a hammer from what on bruske outlines of loops on which cut out a chisel wood under loops are printed. In the same way mark places under loops and on boxes (fig. 79).

the Template of Pavlihina for rametki places under loops: 1 - an emphasis; 2 - skoby

79. A template of Pavlihina for rametki places under loops :
1 - an emphasis; 2 - skoby

Doors hang the same as also shutters of covers. That the door did not open any way, it is recommended to hang it with a small inclination towards a box quarter. At naveshivanii a door densely press to the top quarter of a box. At dvuhpolnyh or polutorapolnyh doors preliminary pristragivajut pritvory, after naveshivanija beat from two parties nashchelniki which protect places pritvora from blowing off by a wind. Doors are better for hanging on demountable loops that facilitates repair performance.

Prirezka of devices. To the hung shutters, frames and doors prirezajut various devices, that is put handles, locks, latches, latches, hooks etc.

Handles, hooks and latches krepjat after colouring of covers and doors, and locks and internal latches - before colouring. Latches put only in dvupolnye or polutorapolnye doors. At height of a door to 2м put two latches in length on 235мм, at a door above 2м - the bottom latch in length 235мм, and top - 370мм. It do that the latch could be opened from a floor. Krepjat a latch several screws.

For installation of latches in places pritvora one half above and below choose a chisel the grooves which depth should provide easy opening and latch closing.

Latches krepjat from that party of cover which presses the second shutter. On this shutter two latches put. If the frame opens completely on it two latches also put.

Hooks are less convenient, than latches. Apply them mainly to shutter fastening in open position.

Window leaves lock fortochnymi zavertkami the small size. To lock-out of doors apply latches or other elementary devices, but more often locks.

Handles for closing and opening of shutters of cover, frames and doors happen right and left (fig. 80): right krepjat to the right half of a door or cover, and left - to left on distance 900-1100мм from a floor.

Handles: and - left; - right

80. Handles :
And - left; - right

Handles, latches and other devices sometimes leaky adjoin to bruskam because it prevent acting nuts and rivets. In this case under them it is necessary to cut down nests of the demanded length and depth.

Locks apply vreznye, waybills, prireznye. The Dead lock is mounted in lateral bruske an opening cloth of a door at the same height from a floor, as well as by door handles (900-1100мм). Nests under locks (under a box and a forward lath) cut down a chisel or a chisel so that the forward lath was zapodlitso with an edge bruska, or rolled on 1 / 2 mm in its thickness, but did not act above an edge. Into a nest insert the lock and check density prileganija a forward lath, the lock take out, measure distance from kljucheviny to a lath and transfer this size on a door so that at aperture cutting out in bruske it was against kljucheviny. At first it is possible to drill an aperture in diameter on 2-3мм more core of a key, and for a small beard to continue an aperture. After that the lock privertyvajut screws also check a key its work. If the lock badly works, it unscrew and correct defects (fig. 81).

Falevyj the lock with suvaldnym the mechanism

81. The falevyj lock with suvaldnym the mechanism

At a dead lock insert it is recommended to use a template of Kuskova (fig. 82). The top lath of a template is executed from a board in the thickness 10-12мм, and lateral faces - from plywood-pereklejki, a dense cardboard or plastic. A template put on a door cloth in a proper place and a pencil mark position of top of a lath of the lock, depth of dredging of a nest and the keyhole location. Hollow a nest in the usual way. Along the edges of a nest bore through apertures on depth of the lock a drill which diameter is equal to a thickness of a box, it is possible and a little already. It facilitates the further performance of a nest.

the Template of Kuskova for a marking of nests under dead locks

82. A template of Kuskova for a marking of nests under dead locks

It is More difficult to kill zapornuju a lath, even skilled joiners spend a lot of time for this operation. Therefore it is better to arrive so. In a quarter of a box or half of door against a bolt cut down a nest depth no more 5мм, the size a little more than a bolt end face. Then cover a nest zapodlitso with bruskom soft clay, plastelinom, putty or a bread crumb. It is possible to prepare putty from a chalk on tavote or lubricating oil. The covered place smooth down at quarter level, cover a door and key turn put forward a bolt. It leaves a print on which put zapornuju a lath a cut precisely on the print centre. Lath lead round a pencil or shilom, do labels and against a skating rink if it is available in the lock, etc. On the planned risks choose wood on the necessary depth and privertyvajut a lath screws.