Manufacturing and installation podokonnyh boards. the Bottom parts of window apertures from the interior of the house always make out podokonnymi boards, or window sills. They are intended to arrange an equal plane in the bottom of a window aperture and to take away condensation water from glasses and from a wall. Below podokonnyh boards, irrespective of a material of which they are made, arrange beaks - fillets in width 8-10мм, with depth 6-8мм. Beaks have on distance 10-20мм from a window sill face sheet.
Podokonnye of a board produce from a tree, a stone-limestone, marble, a mosaic. Their length should be on 100-140мм more than internal width of a window aperture in stone buildings or width of a window box in wooden houses. It is necessary to do width of a window sill such that it acted because of a plane of an internal wall on 50-70мм.
When in wooden houses, usually rublenyh, produce wide bottom brusok or a pillow there a window sill do not put.
At manufacturing wooden podokonnyh boards arrive so. First of all take good, dry, without knots and other defects a board, usually necessary width, thickness 50-60мм, plane it from different directions, and a face sheet necessarily fugujut. After that to a board give the necessary profile with otborkoj kalevki and a beak. Then the planed board cut on pieces of the necessary length (fig. 56).
56. Installation of window sills :
And - a window sill cut; - window sill installation in the stone house; in - window sill installation in the wooden house
Window boxes establish at one level across within one premise.
Podokonnye of a board often do compound, them connect on glue, shponkah or nageljah. Glue is desirable for applying waterproof synthetic and is worse kazeinovyj. Correctly executed compound window sills are not jarred on and serve long time.
Podokonnye of a board establish as follows. The bottom part of a board stack on a wall stone or similar to it, cover preliminary antiseptirovannym with felt, which krepjat to a board with the help drani, the beaten nails. After that prepare a plaster or izvestkovo-plaster solution, pour its layer of the necessary thickness on a wall, put to it podokonnuju a board and get it under a quarter bottom bruska boxes. A board carefully pripressovyvajut and krepjat to a box nails without hats or with spljusnutymi the hats directed on length of fibres. The squeezed out solution cut off, level and there and then rub clean.
Wooden podokonnye boards it is possible krepit and so. Take long, 100-150-миллиметровые nails, chop off hats and sharpen or leave so. Then in bottom brusok boxes drive in with the chopped off end three-four nails on half of their length. To the acting ends put podokonnuju a board, nasazhivajut it on nails, putting blows kijankoj or a hammer through a lining. It is possible to drill or punch preliminary thin apertures in a box and in podokonnoj to a board. In this case a board to fill much easier.
When the ends wooden podokonnyh boards close up in plaster, stone or other laying them follows proantiseptirovat, to cover with bitumen or to wrap up one layer of roofing felt.
All window sills establish strictly horizontally on length, and in a cross-section direction (width) with a bias in a premise to 2°. If necessary a bias give wedges.
Wooden boxes for stone and wooden buildings. Door boxes for stone buildings produce separately or with door cloths - blocks. The sizes of boxes depend on width and height of doors. Doors happen unary or odnopolnye, dvupolnye and polutorapolnye (doors to a cracker). They can be dark pli glazed (fig. 57.
57. Door boxes for stone and wooden houses :
And - the entrance glazed door; - skleenye bruski boxes; in - a door box for rublenogo houses
Door boxes happen closed of four bruskov to a threshold and not closed of three bruskov without a threshold. Boxes or door blocks with the closed boxes establish at an input in the house or in separate apartments, and also in apartment: in bathrooms and toilets. Not closed boxes or door blocks with such boxes put in interroom partitions and in the apertures leaving in a corridor. In not closed boxes vertical bruski the door that is connected with door fastening to beams or logs should on 100-150мм be longer. For this purpose in beams or logs hollow out nests for box thorns. The ends can be fastened raspornoj a board, but all it should be hidden under a floor. Fastening should be reliable, thorns are better for beating to logs that them it was impossible to take out and lift a box. In avoidance koroblenija bruskov door boxes for use in these purposes qualitative korotkomernyh box materials produce from the saw-timbers stuck together by waterproof glues (fig. 57,).
Door boxes produce the same as the window. The section bruskov boxes should provide corresponding durability and rigidity. Boxes produce the separate.
Door boxes for wooden buildings produce separate the same as and for window apertures, that is with a groove from the back party. Vertical bruski the grooves put on crests in walls. Collect boxes on direct through thorns on glue (fig. 57. Krepjat boxes in stone buildings the ruffs who are driven in into lugs or wooden stoppers. A backlash okonopachivajut in the wet way, that is with the plaster test. Establish boxes strictly vertically.
Entrance doors can open outside and in a premise. If doors put double the first opens outside, the second - inside. If a door unary it is better when it opens outside. Pritvor should be free, with a stock on a paint coat in 2мм.