Features of the device of covers. Window covers have a various design. The light area of window apertures should make Vs-Ve from the floor area. For definition of the light area the window area is necessary for dividing into the area of a floor of a premise. Choosing the sizes of windows, it is necessary to consider a house arrangement on districts and height of floors.
Depending on appointment window covers do one - two- and trehstvornymi (fig. 58).
58. Designs of window covers :
1 - vertical bruski obvjazki; 2 - top brusok obvjazki; 3 - bottom brusok obvjazki; 4, 5, 7 - horizontal gorbylki; 5 - vertical gorbylek; 8 - a window leaf; And, In - cover knots
Thus in odnostvornom cover the transom can be closed, and the bottom part of cover to open, or on the contrary. In dvustvornom cover the transom remains closed, and both shutters open or transoms and shutters open. In trehstvornom cover two extreme shutters is more often open, and average is fixed tightly, but sometimes average also opens.
Except stvornyh covers deaf not opening covers, or frames are extended. More often them put in the winter, and in a warm season take out from boxes. Stvornye covers consist of following parts: transoms, shutters, window leaves, impostov, nashchelnyh laths, gorbylkov and otlivov (slivov) which establish on bottom bruskah summer covers, that is on a transom, a window leaf and shutters.
If covers by places pritvora adjoin a transom it do opening from below upwards, and shutters of covers should be thus open.
Brusok strengthened in a box between a transom and a shutter, is called impostom. Shutters and transoms pretend to be to impostu. In this case it is possible to open separately a transom or shutters. Imposty happen horizontal and vertical, for example, put between bruskami boxes or between bottom bruskom and horizontal impostom.
Covers produce from wood of coniferous breeds: pines, larches, a cedar and are more rare than a fur-tree or a fir humidity not above 12%. Wood should be the first and at worst the second grade. Knots and other defects drill or cut down a chisel, giving them the round or diamond-shaped form and closing up inserts on glue.
From wood prepare bruski the necessary form and the size, planing them it is obligatory fugankom.
Bruski from whom covers knit, shutters or transoms, name obvjazkami, bruski which divide covers and transoms into parts, - gorbylkami.
The Section (thickness) bruskov obvjazki and gorbylkov depends on the size of cover or a transom. Usually the section gorbylka is less bruska obvjazki.
On external edges of covers, transoms and window leaves, that is on bruskah and gorbylkah, choose small quarters, or folds into which insert glasses on putty or close them shtapikami - thin wooden rejkami, smooth or with kalevkami.
Folds for an insert and glass fastening happen different that depends on a thickness bruskov obvjazki and gorbylkov, and also on, whether glass is covered with putty or closed shtapikami, the last demand wider folds. At a thickness bruskov obvjazki 54мм depth of folds should be 14-15мм, and width - 8-13мм, at a thickness bruskov 44мм accordingly 13 and 10мм. On the wide parties of folds put glass, into the high parties of folds hammer in hairpins and cover with putty or close shtapikami. Reduction of the sizes of folds is undesirable in order to avoid blowing off through them of a cold wind. It is better to make folds a bit more widely, than already.
Well krepit has flown down to folds shtapikami. They press glass more densely, serve long time, decorate covers, and the main thing, for osteklenija it is required less putties and through folds the wind does not blow at all. Besides, shtapiki do not fall off, as sometimes putty, and tens years can serve.
Through window apertures leaves on the average to 2 / 3 heat a premise, therefore on manufacturing of covers and them osteklenie it is necessary to turn a close attention. Cracks between shutters close rejkoj - nashchelnikom.
To take away rain, snow or kondensatsionnuju a moisture from boxes, from lateral aspect of summer covers, to bottom bruskam obvjazki shutters, to transoms and window leaves krepjat special bruski, named otlivami in the bottom of which necessarily arrange a beak-fillet. Otlivy put on waterproof glue or on an oil paint. Is better to put them not directly to brusku, and to choose in it a groove depth to 10мм, it is more reliable and stronger, and except glue in addition to nail up or tighten screws. To apply usual glue it is inexpedient.
In residential buildings the width of windows can be different, the width of shutters depends on many conditions, and especially from width of a window.
If window apertures consist of two covers they open both of them inside or every which way. The covers opening inside, it is convenient to repair, paint, coat with putty and to wipe glasses. When one cover opens outside, to repair and wipe its glasses more difficultly, and especially on the second floor and above. Work should be conducted from ladders or step-ladders. When in a window aperture only one shutter or a frame it hang always for right brusok obvjazki, but can be deviations that depends on a premise lay-out.
For a dense adjunction of covers to a box in them arrange quarters, or pritvory. Pritvory arrange also between shutters closed to each other.
The Covers especially coupled, do with naplavom and hang on sharnirnye angular or special loops. Naplav is the special quarter chosen outside of covers. The quarter blocks a box on all perimetre on 10-12мм and by that reduces heat losses through cracks. Window leaves usually open in the same party, as shutters.
Depending on window environmental conditions happen to one or with two covers which have in a window aperture with some distance from each other. This distance between covers name zaglushinoj. Double covers reduce heat losses.
To reduce requirement for wood and to provide the raised light exposure of premises at the expense of quantity reduction bruskov and gorbylkov, recently widely apply the coupled covers in which external and internal shutters adjoin with each other. Shutters fasten loops, and then hang on one box. Usually them open in a premise. External cover glaze from lateral aspect, and internal - with internal. Osteklenie carry out on shtapikah. These covers produce so that glasses have defended from each other on 50-70мм. Covers fasten screws or special screws. Between covers at their fastening it is recommended to lay porolonovye tapes that the wind did not blow.
The Adjunction of window leaves to bruskam obvjazki and gorbylkam provide by means of quarters which choose in bruskah obvjazki and gorbylkah, and also in window leaves.
Angular connections in covers carry out on two thorns. Gorbylki with obvjazkami and bruski window leaves do on one thorn. For strengthening of the angular it is viscous except glue use nageli, wooden nails, at the rate of one nagel on one connection.
External shutters in width more 700мм, height more 1800мм often fasten metal squares from outside interglass space, and sometimes and from lateral aspect. At summer covers squares put indoors.
The Sizes bruskov and gorbylkov covers happen different section that depends on the size of shutters of covers. On width of shutters 700 and height 1200мм lateral bruski obvjazki should be section 44X65мм, and at width 700-800мм, height 1200-1800мм-14X65мм.
The General width pritvora (two bruskov) at covers from bruskov section 54X61мм should be 110мм, at pritvorov in windows impostom - to 140мм, at covers with naplavom - 150мм. bruski obvjazki it is accepted to do averages in the width on 4мм less width lateral bruskov that allows to reduce width of an average pritvora. Gorbylki in covers do the same thickness, as well as bruski obvjazki, but with the minimum width for pine wood 15мм. In covers of the big sizes the width gorbylkov can be more 30мм. For manufacturing of usual window leaves on the size take bruski in the width 44мм and thickness 34 and 44мм, for window leaves naplavom - width 51мм.
The Form bruskov and gorbylkov can be simple and profilirovannaja. However in all cases they should have a corner skosa, equal 1:10 which goes from glass to a face sheet of covers that is necessary for a drain of condensation water from glasses.
Nashchelniki cover cracks between shutters in pritvore and between shutters and boxes. Them do in the thickness 12мм, width - 30мм. They can be integral, chosen in bruskah obvjazki, or the waybills attached to shutters by glue and in addition beaten by nails or hairpins (nails without hats). Nashchelniki arrange on the parties of shutters, they should adjoin densely a box and impostam. Nashchelniki, arranged from vuh-three parties, practically give nothing.
With a view of air permeability decrease on perimetre pritvora covers establish linings in the form of strips from elastic plastic, foam rubber, foam rubber or a woollen cord. Linings should possess elasticity, durability, durability.
Them paste special glue or beat thin, not the long zinced nails through 250-300мм from each other in edge so that the thickness of a lining has not changed and on perimetre of all shutter was identical.
Linings should be stacked freely, not to pull strongly, differently they will lose elasticity and sealing properties.
In drawing 59 two window blocks, that is a box with cover are shown. In one case the cover consisting of a box, two shutters and a transom is shown. Shutters adjoin a transom. The crack in pritvore between shutters is closed nashchelyshkom. Shutters open in a premise. One such nashchelnik does not reduce air permeability. The transom can open only upwards or in one of lateral faces, but under condition of opening of shutters of cover.
59. Covers without imposta and with impostom :
And - without imposta; - with impostom; 1 - a box; 2 - vertical brusok; 3 - a shutter with a window leaf; 4 - gorbylek under a window leaf; 5 - a window leaf; 6 - a transom; 7 - a loop; 8 - a shutter without a window leaf; 9 - nashchelnik; 10 - horizontal impost; 11 - vertical impost
In other case the window block with two impostami is shown, vertical and horizontal which are a component of a box and fasten to it thorns. The transom is fixed between a box and bruskom imposta and can open in any party. In most cases transoms krepjat tightly.
For manufacturing of covers at first plane bruski, check their ruler and a square. They can be smooth or with selected kalevkami. In bruskah select folds of the necessary depth and width. More often bruski cover connect in corners on double thorns and eyes. For performance of these connections and folds on bruskah spend risks a surface gauge or a comb and on these risks zapilivajut thorns and eyes, selecting folds. If necessary cut off wood "эр ѕё" in knots for a dense adjunction, preliminary spend risks across bruskov a pencil on a square (fig. 60).
60. The form bruskov and them podgoovka to zapilovke thorns and prushin :
And - otborka foltsev and kalezki: 1 - width of a fold; 2 - fold height; 3 - kalevka; - drawing risok on brusok; 1 - for sample of folds; 2 - for zapilovki thorns and prushin; 3 - for podrezki "эр ѕё" wood in shipovyh and proushinnyh details