Doors on shponkah. Such doors (rice, 72) widely apply at building construction and various subsidiary premises in a countryside. Separate boards or allotments in the doorway fasten not on nails, and on shponkah which drive in into the grooves chosen in boards, and is easier - in a board. Doors produce so. First of all saw boards in the thickness 40-50мм, with an allowance on length 30-40мм and on width 4-5мм. Plane these boards from different directions and especially carefully from that party where will be shponki, and also on edges that they densely adjoined to each other. It is good to apply shpuntovannye boards through which leaves heat a premise less.
72. A door on shponkah :
And - a door general view; - a groove; in - propilivanie a groove a saw-nagradkoj; g - propilivanie a groove on an overlay; d - shponka; e - a version shponok; - shponka at doors
Stroganye of a board stack abreast, compress in a board and spend risks, designating grooves under shponki. SHponki on all depth do on a cone, on width below - 50мм, above - 35мм. Depth of a groove should equal 1 / 3 thickness of boards. On the planned risks saw through the slanting grooves reminding vjazku by a thorn "ырё=юёъшэ §тюё=".
The Groove carry out so. By a saw-award do two has spent on drink on the necessary depth at an angle 45°. When there is no nagradki, prosaws carry out a usual saw not on all width of a board, and in separate allotments. Thus accuracy has spent on drink on risks and a saw angle of slope should be identical that demands certain skill.
Prosaws luchkovoj a saw or nozhovkoj are better for carrying out in two steps, putting board edges on two-three pieces. To receive an identical corner has spent on drink a groove, to the combined and compressed boards it is necessary to beat a brusok-overlay, planed at an angle 45°. This brusok serves a saw directing for a cloth. In such a way nagradkoj or a two-manual saw saw through at once on all width of a board.
Wood between prosaws choose a chisel manually or the various adaptations considered earlier. It is especially effective gruntubel which quickly and purely choose wood with formation of an equal groove.
Simple shponki for a fastening of boards do from bruskov by the height equal to a thickness of boards from which the door cloth is collected. Except simple shponok, produce shponki with naplavom, applying bruski the same thickness. SHponki with naplavom is stronger simple, they adjoin to a cloth of a door more densely and pass heat from a premise less.
To Do shponki too thin, sostragivaja them zapodlitso with a door cloth, it is not recommended, as their durability decreases, and the door is often jarred on, forming as though tray.
Shponki produce after grooves are chosen. First of all plane bruski in the length on 100-150мм more width of a cloth of a door. Edges shponok sostragivajut on a cone.
Ready shponku insert into a groove and slightly drive in. Thus some allotments (board) act as the edges from the general plane of a cloth a little. Such edges mark, take out shponki and correct depth of a groove. Then shponki insert into grooves and with force drive in, densely compressing boards of a door cloth. A face sheet of a cloth of a door plane under a ruler and cut off the ends shponok on a cone. SHponki inside doors it is possible to put on glue. After that from edges sostragivajut a wood part that the door had the necessary width, and the face parties on the spent risks cut off.
That the end face shponki was not visible from a face sheet of an edge of a door, the groove is not finished by edges on 15-20мм. For this purpose, having lined a groove, recede from an edge on the specified size and a chisel choose a piece of a groove in length 50-100мм, and then a saw saw through it up to the end. SHponku do more carefully that it with certain effort has entered into a groove to the end.
Doors frame on nails. Such doors (73) apply fig. indoors to separate rooms. The sizes of doors can be different. Do doors from bruskov by section 40X40 or 50x50мм. If such bruskov is not present, them produce compound of tesa, having stuck together or having brought down tesiny nails. Extreme vertical bruski, or obvjaz, it is recommended to produce the first wide, according to the specified sizes. Horizontal bruski it is possible to do by narrower and to put them through 150-200мм between vertical bruskami. Horizontal bruski krepjat nails, they stiffen a skeleton and protect facing from progibanija and vspuchivanija.
73. Doors frame, fastened by nails :
And - skeletons; - the form bruska; in - a door cut on width
The Skeleton revet from two parties with plywood-resticky or wood-fiber plates (it is more correct - sheets) which paste or nail up, but it is possible both that and another. A hat of nails or screws utaplivajut in facing on 2 3мм that at ostrozhke not to blunt the tool and not to spoil a door general view. A door do on the size of quarters of a box.
Frame doors have a lack - plywood-pereklejki edges break away, and wood-fiber plates lohmatjatsja. It can be avoided, if after facing on all parties of a door to strengthen 5-10-миллиметровые bruski (laths). In that case a door skeleton do in the size less for a thickness of applied laths. Facing krepjat to a skeleton: prostragivajut from different directions and then krepjat laths on glue or nails with obligatory utopleniem hats in thickness of wood.
Filyonchatye of a door. Such doors the most beautiful, but also more difficult in manufacturing (fig. 74). Panels can be smooth, with apportions from simple bruskov or with selected kalevkami, figarejnymi, naplavnymi and with a framework, and also with a various carving. Doors with smooth panels apply at an input in apartments and in interroom partitions, a door with naplavnymi and figarejnymi panels - at an input in apartment, at entrances and on balconies with ostekleniem. For cupboard doors of a panel from plywood-pereklejki take in the thickness not less 5мм, for room - not less 8мм, and from boards - not less 18мм.
The General view of some doors is shown in drawing 74, and.
74. Filenchatye doors :
And - a general view; - a working drawing filenchatoj doors: I - a door general view; II - a door cut; III - the top knot; IV - average knots; V - the bottom knot; VI - a consecutive marking bruskov doors (it is specified by figures with 1 on 17); in - versions of panels; g - panels in connection with obvjazkoj; d - a door with smooth panels and its details; e - details filenchatoj doors with wide bottom bruskom: its knots: 1 - top; 2 - average; 3 - bottom; - apportions for fastening of panels; z - sklejka doors
Filenchatye of a door consist from obvjazki and a filler-panel. A thickness bruskov obvjazki and width are specified above. Bruski obvjazki well plane, otfugovyvajut and mark. The length bruskov should be on 5мм more than natural height of a door. Bruski connect unary or double direct thorns. On long bruskah carry out eyes, on short - thorns.
First of all take two long bruska, stack a face sheet upwards and obverse edges outside and spend on a square a line on an allowance in 1 length to 5мм. From it postpone height of a door cloth, for example 2000мм, and spend a line 2. From the spent lines 1 and 2 postpone full width top (110мм) and bottom (220мм) bruskov (lines 3 and 4). After that from lines 3 and 4 by the external ends bruska spend lines 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 which limit depth shpunta and size potemka. From lines 3 and 4 postpone distances to averages bruskov (lines 10, 11) and from them - width of averages bruskov (lines 12 and 13). For depth shpunta (groove) from both parties of averages bruskov inside postpone on 14мм lines 14, 15, 16 and 17. All lines by means of a square translate on four parties of everyone bruska, that is leave risks simple ostroottochennym a pencil.