Boxes. Window and doorways fill with boxes into which then insert covers or doors. Boxes with the hung covers and doors name blocks. Except loops to covers and doors krepjat handles, latches, zavertki, locks etc. Boxes for stone buildings (brick, concrete, shlakobetonnyh, zemlebitnyh and pise-walled) produce from bruskov or thick boards and connect on direct through thorns. The quantity of thorns depends on width bruskov, but should be not less than two. Boxes can be unary and double, that is on one or two covers. On one cover it is easier than a box, but to establish them more hard, than boxes on two covers.
For rublenyh timbered or bruschatyh walls window boxes, or packs, produce from thick wide boards. From boards prepare bruski and establish them not the whole box, and serially separate bruskami. Boxes do of dry coniferous wood by humidity not above 18%.
Window boxes for stone buildings. Depending on the size of a window aperture of a box produce simple, consisting of four bruskov, or with impostami which divide a box on two and more parts. Imposty can be horizontal both vertical or horizontal and vertical simultaneously (fig. 52. Imposty krepjat in bruskah boxes double thorns in through or deaf nests. At separate external boxes section bruskov for covers without naplava - 79x89мм or 79X99мм, for covers with naplavom - 64x104мм. At internal boxes section bruskov - 64x74мм. The section bruskov impostov depends on section bruskoz obvjazki, and also from width and length impostov. At manufacturing of compound external boxes section bruskov - 79X79 or 74Х Х79мм, internal - 54X94мм, and bruskov impostov - accordingly 79X58 or 74X58мм.
For usual covers of a quarter in boxes choose depth on 1-2мм more thickness bruskov cover, for covers with naplavom - there is less than thickness bruskov cover, and in obvjazkah bruskov - so that it covered on 10-12мм an extreme edge of a box, as forms naplav. The general depth of a quarter for external covers - 15мм, for internal - 12мм.
52. Window boxes for stone buildings :
And - boxes simple with impostami: 1 - vertikalnym; 2 - horizontal; g - boxes for the covers opening inside; in, d, e - boxes for covers, otkryvajushchisja every which way; - angular it is viscous a separate and general box; 1 - quarters for plum; 2 - quarters for podokonnoj boards
Separate boxes produce with quarters in one party, with the covers opening inside (fig. 52, 6, and also every which way - outside and in inside (fig. 52, in, d,). Double boxes arrange for the covers opening inside or every which way, with distance between covers 100-200мм (puc. 52, in,). The box for rublenyh houses is done with quarters every which way, with vertical and bottom bruskami, having on an underside by grooves with which them put on crests in window apertures (fig. 52,). It concerns and door boxes.
First four types of boxes establish in stone, brick, concrete, shlakobetonnyh and to that similar buildings, the fifth type - in wooden, from floor level at height 700-800мм. In bottom bruskah boxes choose grooves or quarters depth not less 10мм for window sills and to 10мм for otlivov (slivov). Separate boxes are more economic under the material expense, but it is more difficult in installation, the general - on the contrary (fig. 52.
The covers opening in a premise are Most convenient, them it is easy to repair, coat folds with putty, to wipe glasses. In one-storeyed buildings covers can open in any party.
Window boxes consist of four bruskov, connected on direct through thorns. Separate boxes knit on double, and the general - on double or threefold thorns. Otlivy or plums can be wooden, but is more often them produce from a roofing steel, black or zinced. The zinced steel has bolshy service life. The black steel is painted oil paints for colouring of roofs by 2-3 times.
Boxes collect on kazeinovom to glue, and it is better on waterproof synthetic. Thorns bruskov grease boxes with glue, collect, checking them prjamougolnost, stack in vajmy, once again check on a diagonal and a square, compress, drill in corners of a box of an aperture and put on glue nageli - wooden nails. Then boxes take out from vajm and leave for drying.
When there is no wide thick boards, to manufacturing of boxes apply narrower, doing their compound and sticking together kazeinovym or waterproof synthetic glue.
Boxes for stone and to that of similar buildings produce as follows. Plane rectangular or square bruski, spend necessary risks, zapilivajut thorns and eyes, select quarters. Having made angular connections, boxes collect dry, check a square and on diagonals.
Unary boxes for the winter covers opening in a building, should be slightly more on the size of summer covers. Summer covers should open freely inside.
Before installation in a window aperture in boxes it is possible to lay covers, a transom, shutters. If necessary do corrections, hang on loops and prirezajut steel devices. Shutters thus should open and be closed freely. To protect boxes from a warp, they are better for fastening on a diagonal boards which remove after box installation.
Boxes have in a wall strictly horizontally. Boxes for covers put from floor level on 700-900мм, and from a ceiling - 150-250мм. Handles krepjat from floor level on distance 1350-1600мм. Within one premise slopes should be identical width, bottom bruski boxes - are strictly horizontal, and lateral - are vertical.
Krepjat of a box to walls ruffs, long screws, and sometimes nails to lugs which put in walls. Lugs do of a seasoned wood of coniferous breeds, antiseptirovannoj and covered with bitumen. Them wrap up two layers of roofing felt. A face sheet leave opened. For a lug bricklaying do on the size of a brick, them put on distance 300мм from a bottom and aperture top, but no more 1500мм from each other, when windows high, but not less than two pieces on each party.
Back and box lateral faces close one or two layers of roofing felt which nail up. Instead of roofing felt it is possible to use a bitumen covering.
If in window apertures lugs in proper places drill apertures depth 50-70мм are not put, hammer wooden antiseptirovannye in stoppers, and in them ruffs or screws turn. Boxes follows krepit strongly.
Correctly plastered window slopes decorate a premise. That they were identical width, it is necessary to arrive so. Walls with window apertures proveshivajut, drive in nails, arrange marks and beacons from a solution. The beacon is a strip of a solution in the thickness equal to a thickness of plaster. To beacons put equal rejku from which measure on a bottom and box top the certain distance marked with the letter and (fig. 53, putting 2 times rejku.
Having strengthened summer boxes, put winter on distance from summer 100-200мм, thus consider also width of a slope - not less 100мм depending on a thickness of walls.
The Summer box, or the summer window block, put so. To the vertical parties of a winter box krepjat lugs, on two on each party. The width of lugs should equal to distance between boxes or width zaglushiny. To these lugs put a box or the block of winter covers, establishing them strictly vertically and horizontally, and then krepjat.
53. Installation of boxes in stone buildings :
And - a cut of a wall with a box: 1 - a wall; 2 - a box; 3 - a beacon; 4 - rejka (letters "р" show on identical rassotojanie from a box to rejki); - check of correctness of the box established in a window aperture; 1 - a box; 2 - wedges; 3 - a backlash between a box and a wall; 4 - a plumb; 5 - check of the established box on a diagonal rejkoj (it is shown by a dotted line)
At box or block installation apply 8 wedges which hammer below from lateral faces and from above. Correctness of installation of a box check on a diagonal rejkoj and a square. Boxes the axes should coincide with axes of apertures (fig. 53. Therefore at installation a summer box or the block on width divide on two parts and put labels. In the same way divide also width of an aperture. These labels should coincide. The label on a winter box can be transferred with summer by means of a square or a plumb, thus the plumb cord should coincide with a point of intersection of diagonals.
Having strengthened boxes or blocks in window apertures, caulk backlashes between a box and a wall. Is better to perform this work as wet way: tow locks moisten in small portions of the plaster test, insert into backlashes and well condense. That bruski boxes have not caved in, between vertical and horizontal bruskami put one or two rasporki. The wet way okonopachivanija is more reliable dry. Space between boxes, or zaglushiny and slopes, fill with a solution at oshtukaturivanii.
From the interior of window apertures below put window sills from a tree or from a cement mortal.