Joiner's works Joiner's works in rural mestosti Works of the joiner Work of the joiner in a countryside

the Device of floors (ch. 3)

 
 

Floors from shpuntovannyh boards. Except the milled boards apply shpuntovannye. At these boards ostrogana a face sheet, and from edges folds, shpunt with a direct thorn, with a segment, trapezoid thorn and with rejkoj in shpunt are chosen. A floor from such boards to lay more difficult as without having dredging below for prospirit, boards at the slightest roughness do not lay down densely on a beam or to a log. If roughness not to remove, the board in this place forms proweight, and it eliminate strozhkoj. Boards can be nailed up from a face sheet, and also to lay in the parquet way, hammering in nails into a crest.

Floors from not edging boards. Such boards lay, alternating year layers. In drawing 40, and it is shown correct nastilka boards, and in drawing 40, - wrong. In the first case the floor will be equal, in the second - to consist as though of separate trays.

Nastilka of floors from not edging boards: and - correct; - wrong; in - tools for carrying out visible risks

40. Nastilka floors from not edging boards :
And - correct; - wrong; in - tools for carrying out visible risks

At nastilke such boards their face sheet should be planed, and edges otesyvat an axe after the risk, spent on equal strogannoj rejke. Otesyvat boards follows as it is possible more purely and more exactly. After that one board beat about a wall. On distance 20-30мм from the first board put the second, slightly attaching its nails. Between boards insert line, or I will drag away (brusok with a nail), and spend these tools on the second board well visible to risk (fig. 40. Otvoloka the back party should move on earlier established first board, and a nail - on temporarily beaten - the second, leaving risk, on which stesyvajut board edges. A board with otesannoj an edge put to earlier beaten if it is required, correct discrepancies. Then this board remove, beat off on its second edge to risk and otesyvajut. After that a board densely press to earlier beaten by brackets and wedges and beat two nails to everyone a log. Such way nastilki floors name plotnichnym.

From these boards it is possible to lay floors and joiner's way, that is after stesyvanija wood from board edges plane and fugujut. Each board put to each other and if necessary correct. Boards mark, that at nastilke they laid down one to another as it is possible more densely. Further lay in the usual way. From edging boards to lay floors it is much easier, especially joiner's way.

It is necessary to remember that at nastilke floors from not edging or edging boards of their edge connect plug-in thorns. It gives to a floor the raised rigidity, and boards during circulation do not cave in.

Except the considered cold floors do also the warm.

Heat-insulated floors. Double (warmed) floors (41) suit fig. on the building ground floor, that is from an underground and between floors. Such floors consist of two floorings - pure and black (selection), being on some distance from each other. A subfloor do from gorbylej (for the ground floor), for interfloor overlappings - of plates or boards. Gorbyli and boards apply in the thickness 50мм or more. Them do not beat to beams, and stack in chosen in a beam shpunty or on cranial bruski.

the Double warmed floors: and - a beam with shputnom; - a beam with a skull; in - a beam with cranial bruskom; 1 - shpunt; 2 - a skull; 3 - cranial brusok

41. The double warmed floors :
And - a beam with shputnom; - a beam with a skull; in - a beam with cranial bruskom; 1 - shpunt; 2 - a skull; 3 - cranial brusok

At first lay a subfloor, grease it not fat, and otoshchennoj clay a layer 15мм or a limy solution, well dry, then fall asleep dry sand or small slag, usually on half of height of beams. Sand fill in with a layer (in 1см) a liquid limy solution, well dry and then lay wearing floor boards, necessarily arrange in floors on premise corners ventilating apertures.

For this purpose in corners bore through on three-four apertures in diameter 10-15мм and close lattices. Preliminary krepjat frameworks in height 5-7мм and to them nails or screws - lattices (fig. 42. It do that at washing of floors water has not got to an underground. Humidifying zasypki can lead to occurrence of a house mushroom. It is better than a framework krepit to a floor on shpaklevke or putty. Instead of lattices it is possible to arrange plinths with ventilating apertures (fig. 42,). In small rooms ventilating lattices put in two corners on a diagonal, in big - in each corner.

When lay floors from the milled boards or bruskov in them choose grooves-prospirits from the bottom party which provide ventilation. When lay floors from other boards on top of beams through 500-600мм (it is better under each board) for air circulation do some cuts by depth no more 20мм (fig. 42. The Wearing floor lay regularly.

/installation of plinths and ventilating lattices: and - installation of a ventilating lattice: 1 - a framework; 2 - a lattice; - a plinth with nashchelnikom (apertures): 1 - a beam; 2 - a floor board; 3 - a plinth; 4 - an aperture; in - nastilka a floor on beams with prospirits: 1 - a beam; 2 - prospirit; 3 - nails

42. Installation of plinths and ventilating lattices :
And - installation of a ventilating lattice: 1 - a framework; 2 - a lattice; - a plinth with nashchelnikom (apertures): 1 - a beam; 2 - a floor board; 3 - a plinth; 4 - an aperture; in - nastilka a floor on beams with prospirits: 1 - a beam; 2 - prospirit; 3 - nails