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the Device of floors (ch. 4)

 
 

Manufacturing and installation of plinths. installation of plinths which close cracks between a floor and walls Finishes nastilku floors, and also protect walls from pollution.

Plinths apply serially let out by the industry, and also made by own strength. Plinths under the form galtelej widely use at the device wooden board and parquet floors. Krepjat plinths and galteli to one element of a design: to a wall, to a floor, and more often - to a parquet. The floor laid on sound-proof linings or on zasypke, should not be connected with walls because the arising sound bridge transfers fluctuations of a floor to walls, and the last - to a premise. Happens that between plinths and walls put sound-proof linings. Plinths more often krepjat to a wall, and galtel - to a parquet floor, but sometimes and to walls. Galtel should not concern walls and if it is necessary to do it lining statement is obligatory. Ready plinths and galteli can be issued usual, that is only ostrogannymi, but can be painted or varnished. The painted or varnished plinths follows krepit only after furnish of walls - colourings or pastings by wall-paper.

Plinths krepjat to walls nails, to floors - nails or screws. When walls gvozdimye, krepit plinths simply, when negvozdimye it is necessary to bore through or punch apertures through 600-700мм with a space from the ends of plinths on 150-200мм. Depth of apertures - 40-50мм, diameter - no more 10мм. Into apertures hammer in wooden stoppers humidity no more than 12%. Into these stoppers drive in nails in the length equal to length of a stopper and a thickness of a plinth or galteli (fig. 43). Fastening should be strong, hats of nails or screws are drowned in thickness of wood. In corners and on length plinths join "эр ѕё" at an angle 45°. For this purpose it is recommended to apply stuslo (raspilovochnyj a box) which allows quickly and to receive the specified corner precisely.

Installation of plinths: and - to a wall; - to a floor; 1 - the basis; 2 - a floor or parquet board; 3 - plinths - idle time and with galtelju;

43. Installation of plinths :
And - to a wall; - to a floor; 1 - the basis; 2 - a floor or parquet board; 3 - plinths - idle time and with galtelju;

It is necessary to notice that from walls of boards of a floor or a parquet on 10-15мм many consider a space insufficient and remove them on 20мм, motivating it with that at the raised humidifying of a floor of a board start to extend and the left backlash can appear insufficient.

Plinths do such design that from the back party they densely did not adjoin to a wall and a floor, their corner cut off on a facet. Floor boards thus should recede from walls on 30мм. In plinths drill apertures in diameter 10мм through 1000мм but so that they were from level of a floor not less than on 25мм. Painting plinths, it is necessary to watch to filling in an aperture with a paint. After colouring it is necessary to insert into apertures specially planed stick in diameter 10мм, rotating it, pound the got paint.

Nastilka of parquet floors. Parquet floors give to a premise a beautiful kind, they are hygienic and strong. To the device of floors apply a piece parquet, and also parquet boards and boards, a type-setting parquet in the form of guards. Except an one-colour parquet use hudozhestvennnyj, made on special drawings from wood of different colour. Plancks of all kinds of a parquet do of wood of firm breeds (an oak, a beech, a hornbeam, an ash-tree, a maple, karagacha, an elm, ilma, a chestnut, a white acacia, gledichii, birches, pines and larches) by humidity no more than 8%. The thickness of parquet laths from a pine and a larch is equal 8мм, from other breeds - 6мм. The piece parquet from wood of firm deciduous breeds has a thickness 15мм, and from coniferous - 18мм.

At nastilke any parquet (the same as at nastilke deal floors) humidity of air in premises should be not above 60%, and temperature not more low 8°Р.

At nastilke a parquet on mastics a subfloor or the basis should be equal, pure and dry. Check the basis fugovannoj two-metre rejkoj with level. Deviations between rejkoj and the basis or nastlannym a parquet - no more 2мм. Lay a parquet, having receded from a wall a minimum 10мм.

Floors from parquet boards. Such floors consist of two layers, bottom reechnogo, or the board basis, and an obverse covering from rectangular laths. The reechnoe basis consists of three reek. On one long and short edges of the basis there are grooves in width and depth on 7мм, and on two opposite edges there are crests with which help of a board incorporate among themselves. If to the basis apply the whole boards of the necessary width in them for the purpose of the prevention koroblenija for all length do not through prosaws which are not reaching laths of an obverse covering on 1-2мм.

Plancks of an obverse covering have across reechnogo the bases is more often, but is possible and the mixed arrangement. Plancks have width 20-45мм and length 145 or 160мм, that is are equal to width of the basis. The thickness of laths depends on breed of wood of which they are made: from a pine and a larch - 8мм, for other breeds - 6мм.

The Length of parquet boards happens 1200, 1800, 2400 and 3000мм at width 145 and 160мм. However use boards in length 600 and 900мм. The general thickness of the parquet boards covered with laths from firm breeds, is equal 25мм, a thickness of laths from a pine or a larch - 27мм (fig. 44.

Parquet boards and the tool: and - a cut of a parquet board and arrangement variants on it of laths; - a parquet hammer; in - dobojnik; g - the device of floors from parquet boards on columns on a ground; 1 - a parquet board; 2 - a log; 3 - a lining; 4 - a waterproofing; 5 - a column

44. Parquet boards and the tool :
And - a cut of a parquet board and arrangement variants on it of laths; - a parquet hammer; in - dobojnik; g - the device of floors from parquet boards on columns on a ground; 1 - a parquet board; 2 - a log; 3 - a lining; 4 - a waterproofing; 5 - a column

The Basis on one long and one short edges has a groove depth and in the width on 7мм, on others - crests of the same size. The bottom party of the basis from two parties cut off on a cone that provides dense prileganie edges. At nastilke parquet boards the edge with a crest enters into an edge with a groove.

The Parquet boards covered with a varnish, it is necessary to lay accurately not to scratch. On a measure nastilki it is recommended to close a parquet a dense paper or a cardboard.

Floors from parquet boards can be laid on the logs laid on separate columns, or on a ground on sandy zasypke and on the concrete bases. Krepjat parquet boards to logs nails which hammer into crossing of a board with everyone lagoj. To work apply a hammer and dobojnik. The hammer parketchika is More convenient.

The Parquet hammer (fig. 44, 6) weight 910г has an oblique sock which at blow on edges of a parquet without a lining does not rumple crests, grooves and facial angles of edges. Obushkom a hammer basically hammer in nails or strike blows through a lining at parquet compression. Length of a hammer - 100мм, section - 35x35мм, length with the handle - 305мм.

Dobojnik (fig. 44, represents a steel core in diameter 18 and length 100мм. Diameter of a working part, that is at the end, should be 6мм. A hammer hammer in a nail to a parquet edge, and dobojnikom utopljajut a nail hat into thickness of wood.

From parquet boards it is possible to arrange Floors and on the ground floor, in so-called basement or nadpodvalnyh premises. Logs thus stack not on plates interfloor or nadpodvalnyh overlappings, and on concrete or brick columns in height to 250мм, standing on a ground. Columns establish on distance 400-500мм from each other (fig. 44. On them stack at first a waterproofing from two layers of roofing felt or roofing material, then - antiseptirovannye linings, on linings - logs in the thickness 40 60мм, width 100-120мм. All joints a log necessarily should be on columns.

Columns arrange so that their top part was strictly at one level. The same accuracy should be and on the top party a log. All this design should be executed strictly on level. Logs necessarily antiseptirujut. The waterproofing protects linings and logs from humidifying.

If an underground slightly crude it is necessary at first columns gidroizolirovat at level 150мм from the earth, and then - on top. At a damp ground it is necessary to take all measures to a reliable waterproofing of an underground as dampness accelerates rotting of wood and defeat by its house mushroom.

At such covering of floors in them ventilating apertures for airing of underground space by a total area not less than 20 or no more 30см 2 should be arranged. Apertures close metal lattices with the apertures towering over level of a floor, as krepjat lattices necessarily on frameworks. On everyone 15-20м 2 the floor areas should be not less than two ventilating lattices in opposite corners of a premise.

At nastilke floors from parquet boards it is necessary to observe following rules. All face joints of boards should be on logs. Boards which completely do not keep within indoors, it is necessary to saw on length and to lay a groove in a crest. Are not supposed neshpuntovannye connections of boards as solidity of a floor is broken and it becomes unsteady.

Floors necessarily should lean on a log which specially stack if they adjoin to earlier nastlannym to floors, are about devices of heating and if the length of the ends of boards (svesov) exceeds 100мм.

The Ends a log, parquet boards or any parquet should not reach walls on 10мм. This backlash then block a plinth a minimum on 10мм. Plinths should adjoin densely to a parquet floor without cracks and backlashes.

Everyone nastlannyj should be checked a floor site on unsteadiness. On such places stack additional sound-proof antiseptirovannuju a lining.

In wooden, brick, shlakobetonnyh and other houses of overlapping consist of the beams leaning against walls or columns (columns). From below to beams beat filing from thin boards (filing from tesa), plates, boards on which stack a heater, and then lay wooden pure or a subfloor. Further lay a parquet or other material.

Parquet boards after nastilki correct and varnish or rub with mastic.

Laying any parquet floors, it is necessary to have the sharp tool: planes, longitudinal and cross-section saws-melkozubki. Velvet has spent on drink lengthways or across provides more dense adjunction of a parquet to each other.