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the Device of floors (ch. 5)


Floors on ferro-concrete overlappings in korpichnyh, stone and cast concrete buildings. Overlapping can be monolithic (the timbering is necessary for its device) or modular of separate ferro-concrete plates. The bottom party of overlapping serves as a ceiling, and top, if the house two-storeyed, - a floor for the second floor. At nastilke parquet floors it is necessary to stack corresponding preparation on a concrete floor for zvuko - and teplonepronitsaemoe. Preparation carry out strictly horizontally, flatness it check two-metre fugovannoj rejkoj and level. A supposed backlash between rejkoj and preparation - no more 2мм.

Preparation carry out from various materials, for example sandy or slag zasypok or from wood-fiber plates. On these materials arrange a cement coupler which prepare from 1 part of cement and 3-4 parts of sand. A coupler also correct and level the laid ferro-concrete plates. The thickness of a coupler depends on a material on which it stack, for sandy and slag zasypok - 40мм, for wood-fiber plates - 45мм.

Couplers also produce from keramzita or slag, that is cement mix with these materials and receive keramzitobeton or shlakobeton. If concrete stack on rigid spreading layers their thickness should be not less 20мм, on sound-proof layers or on zasypke - to 40-60мм. The executed couplers should be dried well to humidity no more than 6%.

As parquet boards lay on logs before their installation the basis clear of a dirt, dust and a dust.

On the equal basis stack wood-fiber plates of the necessary thickness not to break zvukoprovodnost, and then lay logs in the thickness 25-30мм, width 80мм, humidity no more than 18%. Stack logs on distance 400-500мм from each other. Logs and plates antiseptirujut.

Stacking logs on couplers, at first do the sound-proof lining cut from wood-fiber plates by separate strips in width 100мм. Linings stack a log but so that they supported to a log from each party on 10мм on all length. That these strips did not move, they can be nailed up.

The following order of packing a log Is recommended. On the levelled basis put linings, then - logs. The first, or majachnuju, to a log put on length of a premise to one of walls but so that it did not reach them on 40мм. This to a log stack strictly horizontally, checking rejkoj and level. On distance 2000мм from it stack the second to a log strictly horizontally on length and width of a room. If necessary to a log level, enclosing additional strips from a wood-fiber plate. Then between earlier established two logs on distance 400мм from each other place four more. Their horizontal position check rejkoj, leaning on majachnye logs. That logs casually were not displaced, them temporarily fasten boards. Thus stack logs, checking their two-metre rejkoj. The second party a log establish on distance 2м from the first.

It is possible to lay at first also majachnye logs only on long walls, and then - intermediate, but for this purpose it is necessary to have all rejku on 50-70мм more shortly width of a room. Such way of installation a log is easier and more accessible.

Having laid logs, start to nastilke parquet boards which should not reach walls a minimum on 10мм. In backlashes between a wall and a floor necessarily stack linings from a soft wood-fiber plate or other sound-proof material. Linings interfere with distribution of shock noise from a floor on walls. Backlashes between a wall and a floor close plinths, usually type galteli.

The First parquet board stack to a wall a crest. Boards to everyone a log nail up in the length 50-60мм. Hammer in nails naklonno into the basis of the bottom cheek of a groove on edges of parquet boards with vtaplivaniem hats dobojnikom in thickness of wood. To hammer in nails from a face sheet it is forbidden.

Having laid the first board, stack the second, then third etc. Parquet boards should be rallied densely among themselves both on length, and on width, that is in a groove and a crest. The backlash at splachivanii is supposed no more 0,5мм, and between boards there should not be proscales. It is not supposed splachivanie boards without connection in a groove and a crest. In doorways it is necessary to stack integral boards, on the size of an aperture and to connect them in a groove and a crest.

Parquet boards rally variously. Them force down a hammer through a lining, but it not always gives dense splachivanie, or apply thin skoby, between them and a parquet board hammer in wedges. Do it in two-three places of a board. In free from wedges board logs krepjat nails. Then wedges remove and beat boards to the remained logs.

To compression of parquet boards at mass nastilke is better to apply szhimy different designs. Szhimy should be put on and act in film easily about logs, not move at zabivke wedges between them and a board. Compress serially on one board as everyone доскe fasten with lagoj nails.

Nastlannyj examine a floor, if it is necessary correct, krepjat a plinth, and then varnish or rub with mastic.

Floors from parquet boards. the Parquet board (fig. 45) consists of the wooden basis, the top obverse covering from parquet laths of identical width with the direct milled edges and the square elements laid on the basis in chessboard order. The square is a set of the laths, densely laid an edge to an edge. The parties of squares the identical. Plancks of an obverse covering paste on the basis, using waterproof synthetic glue.

the Device of floors from parquet boards: and - a parquet board with grooves; - a supplementary board for parquet boards; in - an order of packing of boards; 1-10 - boards

45. The device of floors from parquet boards :
And - a parquet board with grooves; - a supplementary board for parquet boards; in - an order of packing of boards; 1-10 - boards

The Basis is a square framework in the size 800X800, 1420Х1420мм or more, executed of bruskov in the thickness 22 and width 57мм. In corners them connect an unary through direct thorn. A framework fill bruskami in one number. Width bruskov - 25-70мм. On these bruski also paste the top obverse covering, that is laths. On obvjazke on all four edges choose grooves depth 14 and width 8мм, without reaching corners on 100мм (it is shown by a dotted line, fig. 45. Boards connect among themselves supplementary rejkami, made of wood of firm deciduous breeds. On a full board spend six reek, for a board polovinnogo the size - four. The sizes reek, mm: length - 50, width - 26 and a thickness - 8. On the wide parties rejki round off (fig. 45, 6).

The Parquet of this type stack on wooden antiseptirovannye logs in the thickness 25-40мм depending on type of interfloor overlappings. Logs put along a premise parallel numbers, is strict on level, with distance between axes 400мм. The board with the parties 800мм leans against three logs one of which is under the board middle, two others - under its edges. Boards krepjat to logs nails. Logs stack on sound-proof zasypkam or to linings.

Nastilku conduct so. At first lay cords for majachnyh numbers for what indoors pull two cords, crossed at right angle. One of them passes along the long party of a premise on distance 810мм from a wall (800мм goes for length of a board and plus 10мм - on a backlash between a board and a wall), another - on the same distance from a short wall. On these cords along walls in the form of letter G put two majachnyh of some boards: the first - in a corner, the most remote from an input. Having checked up correctness of packing of a board on cords, it nail up to everyone a log. When apply boards with grooves for their fastening insert on three supplementary thorns and on them nasazhivajut following boards. The order nastilki boards is shown in drawing 45, century In the edges of a board turned to a wall, it is possible to hammer in nails from above, blocking hats a plinth not less than on 10-12мм.

If boards are made with grooves and crests edges with crests turn to walls. Nails hammer naklonno into the bottom cheek of a groove and utaplivajut in their hats dobojnikom.

Each board hammer blows densely join with previous that their edges densely have converged, and the crest of the second board has completely entered into a groove of the first. Each board necessarily krepjat nails to a log. If boards are not entered in a premise the cut off parties direct to walls or partitions and krepjat nails from a face sheet that hats were closed by plinths on 10-12мм. Then a parquet if it is required, correct, varnish or rub with mastic.