Joiner's works Joiner's works in rural mestosti Works of the joiner Work of the joiner in a countryside

the Device of floors (ch. 6)


Floors from a type-setting parquet on mastic. This parquet represents the guard of the square form typed from laths 100-200мм, width 20-45мм. A thickness of laths from wood of firm breeds - 8мм, from pine and larch wood - 12мм. Edges of laths mill. Paste laths a face sheet on a paper removed after nastilki of a parquet on the basis. Glue apply type dekstrinovogo which it is easy razmokaet from water. From these guards collect (stick together a paper) carpets in the size 400X400 and 600X600мм, a direct square alternate with mutually perpendicular, as at parquet boards.

Lay such parquet on the rigid basis, basically on a concrete coupler. Roughnesses of a coupler at check rejkoj 2000мм are admissible in the length in 1мм. It is necessary because the adjunction of the back party of a parquet with mastic and a coupler should make not less than 80% of the area of a guard or its part. At 100%-s' adjunction of a guard to a coupler more reliable gluing is provided, therefore it is necessary to do couplers as it is possible more exactly.

Mastics apply hot or cold. Prepare them under different recipes. Hot mastics harden and strongly seize with a coupler through 1-2мин. After this time it is possible to go on nastlannomu to a parquet, without being afraid that it will come unstuck. To work as hot mastics follows cautiously as they have temperature not more low 160-180°Р. Prepare mastics from bitumen oil (BN), usually marks БН-111 and БН-IV with napolnitelem and without it.

Hot mastic prepare in such a way. Take bitumen with softening temperature 60-65°Р, narubajut small pieces, stack in a strong copper or a tank, warm up to 170-180°Р in the summer and to 200-220°Р in the winter (if into mastic enter napolnitel in a kind tonkomolotyh stone materials with grains not more largely 0,3мм and in an air-dry condition). In quality napolnitelja use sand, an asbestine flour, a small peat crumb, slags, koloshnikovuju a dust. Admissible humidity of asbestos - 5%, a peat crumb - 12%.

Napolniteli allow to apply bitumens with lower temperature of a softening, and mastics with them create a rigid skeleton without fluidity.

Bitumen plavjat (cook) before the termination of foaming and full evaporation of water. Foam and the emerged impurity delete. Long heating and an overheat reduce quality of mastic.

Hot mastics apply in business in protsese preparations that is not always convenient. Besides, mastics quickly cool down, lay down a thick layer, and to the cooled down mastic the parquet is badly pasted. Cold mastics have a number of advantages.

Into the fused hot bitumen at constant hashing enter in the small portions napolnitel. The maintenance pylevidnyh napolnitelej depending on their quality should make 25 50% from weight of mastic, fibrous napolnitelej (an asbestine flour, a peat crumb) - accordingly 10-30%. Add in their small portions, mastic during 15-20мин carefully mix, and formed foam remove. It is necessary to remember that at addition napolnitelej the raised humidity mastic can be splashed out from a copper or a tank, therefore it is necessary to be cautious.

Mastics cold prepare from bitumen of mark БН-IV (65%), uajt-spirita (22%), turpentine (4%), rubber glue (2%) and cement (7%). The received homogeneous weight easily put on the basis, it provides after hardening strong priklejku a parquet. The thickened mastic dissolve uajt-spiritom. Store it in hermetically closed ware 3 months. Prepare it so. Ware fill on 3 / 4 its volume with bitumen, is better cut on small pieces. Bitumen heat up to full dehydration, remove foam, then in the small portions at careful hashing enter cement. Ware with bitumen remove from fire, delete the appeared foam and cool to temperature 75-80°Р. At continuous hashing enter uajt-spirit and turpentine, and after that - rubber glue. The mastic expense - 1кг on 1м 2 a piece parquet, but can be more or less depending on a basis kind.

It is possible to prepare Mastic from other components which take in mass parts: bitumen of mark BN-SH (softening temperature - 50°Р) - 75,5, gasoline automobile - 21,2, rosin or pine pitch - 3.

Bitumen load ware on 3 / 4 its volume. Plavjat at careful hashing, delete foam and the emerged impurity. Heat up bitumen, foaming will not stop yet. Then put in bitumen rosin or pine pitch and heat up at hashing while rosin or pitch will not fuse. After that ware remove from fire, cool bitumen to 80°Р and in the small portions at careful hashing pour in in it gasoline. The prepared mastic merge in ware.

For preparation bitumno-kukersolnoj mastics take bitumen of mark БН-IV (ЮН-70) 26 parts, rosin - 4, a varnish kukersol - 50 and portlandtsement marks 400 - 20 parts. Bitumen plavjat, remove foam and extraneous impurity, add rosin and heat up to its full fusion at careful hashing. Ware with the fused bitumen remove from fire, add at hashing a varnish kukersol and then at careful hashing dry, sifted through a fine sieve portlandtsement. Store mastic in hermetically sealed ware.

From density of the mastic applied to gluing of a parquet, durability priklejki depends.

Prior to the beginning of work mastic it is necessary to mix and check up carefully its density by immersing of a wooden pestle in diameter 10мм and weight 12г with the millimetric divisions put to it (fig. 46.

the Device of floors from a type-setting parquet: and - a wooden pestle for definition of density of mastic; - a guard of a type-setting parquet; in - gear shpatel; g - nalivanie mastics on the basis; d - nastilka guards of a type-setting parquet; e - paper removal

46. The device of floors from a type-setting parquet :
And - a wooden pestle for definition of density of mastic; - a guard of a type-setting parquet; in - gear shpatel; g - nalivanie mastics on the basis; d - nastilka guards of a type-setting parquet; e - paper removal

At normal density of mastic the end of a pestle with divisions plunges freely on depth 25-30мм. If mastic is dense, the bitumen plant with gasoline, and bitumno-kukersol th - a varnish kukersol if mastic liquid, add in it portlandtsement. To dilute these mastics with any other solvent it is impossible, as they will lose gluing properties. Basically these mastics apply to parquet gluing on the concrete or cement bases.

It is necessary to remember that the bases on which lay a parquet on mastic, it is necessary preliminary ogruntovat a continuous layer without admissions. Ogruntovka creates a water-proof film and improves coupling of mastic with the basis. To ogruntovki the basis carefully clear of a dirt, a dust, dust. After ogruntovka will seize and forms a firm film (crust), it is possible to lay a parquet.

The First coat prepare, measuring 1 part of bitumen of mark BN-SH or БН-IV and 2-3 parts of automobile gasoline or kerosene. The fused and dehydrated bitumen cool to temperature 80°Р, pour in there gasoline or kerosene and all carefully mix to homogeneous weight. To pour in gasoline or kerosene it is necessary small portions and all to mix nearby 15мин; it is forbidden to use in first coats soljarovoe oil.

Preparing mastics or first coats, it is necessary to observe fire-prevention actions and safety precautions. About a preparation place it is necessary to have a stock of sand for suppression vozgorevshej weights, and over a tank the cover should be strengthened, living a roofing steel.

On sale there are every possible mastics and glues, to use them follows only to destination.

The Type-setting parquet lay so. Along two walls pull two cords, perpendicularly to each other at right angle. Instead of cords about walls it is possible to strengthen on an edge at an angle in 90° two fugovannye rejki in the thickness 15-20мм. Rejki paste to the basis hot mastic or it is strong krepjat to walls. Rejki - a reliable emphasis for guards of a type-setting parquet. After removal reek the necessary backlash between a wall and parquet guards is formed. A backlash further cover with a plinth. Rejki it is necessary to take such length that along them it was possible to lay 6-8 pieces of guards.

The First guards put along directing reek. At first lay the first rows on two parties, then - the second. The first guard of the second row put in a corner between the two first guards, and the second guard - between the first and the second.

Each following guard rests edges not against one, and in two before laid that provides their equal packing.

To Lay a type-setting parquet it is more convenient together. One worker prepares and brings a material, pours cold mastic and levels its gear shpatelem, the second stacks the first guard in a corner, is dense utaplivaja it in a mastic layer. Other guards stack consistently, densely pressing them to the basis and earlier laid guards, pripressovyvaja slightly a hammer (fig. 46, 6).

Gear shpatel produce from roofing or other steel in the thickness no more 1мм. SHpatel is a plate in length 200, width 100мм with zubchikami on one party and the wooden handle on another. Teeths pierce a file at an angle of slope 60° height 3мм, width 7,5мм (fig. 46. Juicy mastic shpatel levels so that removes its surpluses, and that which passes between teeths, remains at first in the form of grooves which gradually merge, leaving absolutely equal layer of an identical thickness. To stack a parquet on such mastic easy (fig. 46,).

The Mastic which has been squeezed out from seams, there and then remove a knife, shpatelem and erase a dry rag. Is better such place slightly protsiklevat.

That mastic was not squeezed out at laying of guards, guards should be pressed at first edges to earlier laid, and then to lower on mastic (fig. 46.

In 3-5 days or it is more upon termination of nastilki than guards, that is after full hardening of mastic, from a floor remove a paper (fig. 46. Preliminary a paper slightly humidify with a rag or a brush moistened with water. Definitively finish a parquet after installation of plinths.