Joiner's works Joiner's works in rural mestosti Works of the joiner Work of the joiner in a countryside

the Device of floors (ch. 7)

 
 

Floors from a piece parquet on nails. Such floors lay on the wooden basis or on mastics on concrete or cement couplers of sufficient durability without hollows and cracks.

This kind of a parquet consists of separate laths from valuable breeds of wood on which two edges there are grooves, and on the others - crests. Grooves and lath crests incorporate among themselves. Plancks let out the different size: in the length 150-500РјРј with gradation 50РјРј, that is 150, 200, 250 etc. And width-! 30-90РјРј with gradation 5РјРј. Such parquet is authorised to be produced from wood of a beech in width more 70СЃРј with gradation 5РјРј.

Plancks from firm deciduous breeds have a thickness 15, from coniferous - 18РјРј. The crest acts from an edge of an obverse plate on 5РјРј, its thickness - 4РјРј, the groove is deepened in a lath on 5РјРј.

The Piece parquet lay on the wooden bases or subfloors from nestroganyh boards in the thickness 25РјРј, width no more 120РјРј. Boards are desirable for applying without obzola. Boards bolshej in avoidance koroblenija split width or nadkalyvajut. Humidity of boards should be not above 12%. To beat them follows to beams or logs with backlashes between boards 5РјРј. Separate backlashes or proscales correct strozhkoj. Accuracy nastilki check fugovannoj rejkoj in the length 2000РјРј with level.

Nastilka of this parquet consists of following operations: plan preparations nastilki, closings of the basis by a paper or a cardboard, devices majachnoj fur-trees, strozhki and tsiklevanija, pribivki plinths, a covering a varnish or natiranija mastic.

Depending on the premise area (length and width) and presence of parquet laths it is necessary to choose an optimum and economic variant of performance of works.

The Length of laths depends on width of a premise. It is good, when it is possible to lay an integer of numbers of laths on width. Therefore scheduling should be begun with packing of laths across a room dry, that is vykladyvanija snakes. In a snake each lath corresponds to a parquet number. Each number should keep within so that between walls and the ends of laths there was no backlash which can be closed easily a plinth (type galteli). Well when available there are laths of such size from which it is possible to lay a snake from even number of the whole laths. Thus it is necessary to consider and width of laths. Using laths in width to 40РјРј, it is possible not to saw round end faces of the laths adjoining walls. At width of laths more 40РјРј the backlash between walls and extreme laths turns out big, and end faces of laths are necessary for cutting off at an angle 45°.

When on width of a premise the whole odd number of laths in width to 40РјРј lay them keeps within how the snake is laid out. If width of laths more 40РјРј a snake shift on half of length of a lath to one of longitudinal walls. The first row can be laid, sawing one lath from a snake half-and-half at an angle 45° and both extreme numbers typing from the cut laths. In this case saw smaller number of laths.

If the sizes of laths do not allow to lay out a snake from an integer of laths of identical length extreme numbers gather additionally from laths of smaller length, and the ends of wider saw off at an angle 45° (fig. 47. Having prepared the plan nastilki, start to vykladyvaniju majachnoj fur-trees.

Nastilka of floors from a piece parquet on nails: and - a snake apportion: 1 - packing of even number of the whole laths in width to 40 mm; 2 - the same in width boee 40 mm; 3 - odd number of parquet laths in width to 40 mm; 4 - the same in width more than 40 mm; 5 - extreme numbers gather additionally from laths of other sizes; - a lining of a cord near to a wall of a room for majachnoj fur-trees: 1-majachnaja a fur-tree; 2 - a cord; in - a lining of a cord for majachnoj fur-trees in the middle of a room; g - packing majachnoj fur-trees; d - landing of a lath by hammer blow on a longitudinal edge; e - landing of a lath by hammer blow on a face edge; - assemblage dry a square and its cutting on a diagonal; z - filling of the ends of fur-trees of a parquet at cross-section walls; 3 - the fur-tree end

47. Nastilka floors from a piece parquet on nails :
And - a snake apportion: 1 - packing of even number of the whole laths in width to 40 mm; 2 - the same in width boee 40 mm; 3 - odd number of parquet laths in width to 40 mm; 4 - the same in width more than 40 mm; 5 - extreme numbers gather additionally from laths of other sizes; - a lining of a cord near to a wall of a room for majachnoj fur-trees: 1 - majachnaja a fur-tree; 2 - a cord; in - a lining of a cord for majachnoj fur-trees in the middle of a room; g - packing majachnoj fur-trees; d - landing of a lath by hammer blow on a longitudinal edge; e - landing of a lath by hammer blow on a face edge; - assemblage dry a square and its cutting on a diagonal; z - filling of the ends of fur-trees of a parquet at cross-section walls; 3 - the fur-tree end

Majachnaja a fur-tree are first two numbers of the laths laid strictly on a cord and as it is possible more densely to each other. Packing of this fur-tree with a small warp leads kosine drawing and to occurrence of inadmissible cracks between laths.

When a parquet lay in a squared shape, with direct walls majachnuju a fur-tree carry out on a long wall, the most remote from an input. It is especially convenient at nastilke a parquet on cold mastics when working does not attack lath which can be displaced. In general majachnuju the fur-tree is desirable for stacking on hot mastic when it in some minutes so will harden that it is possible not to be afraid of its displacement. The majachnuju fur-tree can be laid on cold mastic for five-six days prior to the beginning nastilki all parquet then it is not necessary to be afraid of displacement of laths in a fur-tree.

Often laid on cold mastic majachnuju a fur-tree strengthen so. In the left backlash between a wall and an extreme number of a parquet fill in hot mastic or a fur-tree in several places compress wedges that it has not moved at nastilke other numbers of a parquet going from the beginning majachnoj of a fur-tree. The mastic layer should be 0,8-1,0РјРј. In this case solvent which is in mastic, is absorbed by the basis and laths not so quickly and allows to lay a fur-tree better.

To Lay and lay majachnuju a fur-tree it is possible or about one wall, or on the premise centre (fig. 47, 6.

That majachnaja the fur-tree was on one straight line, pull a cord which the nails hammered into the basis (if it gvozdimo assign), or specially krepjat on the ends future majachnoj fur-trees on a parquet lath on hot mastic, after shvatyvanija which drive in a nail into a lath and pull a cord without proscales.

To Stack majachnuju a fur-tree follows so that under a cord there was a left number of laths, and corners of the right number only concerned a cord. It do that working, leaning against the right knee, at movement not could take imperceptibly aside a cord that leads to displacement majachnoj fur-trees (fig. 47.

Majachnaja a fur-tree should be strong, and its laths-not to move a little at nasazhivanii a groove on a crest. A nozzle carry out a hammer to which put two blows - on length of a lath and on an end face (fig. 47, d.

Mastic also pour on the basis, level a comb a layer a little big on the areas, than stacked laths.

When majachnaja the fur-tree is laid out near to a wall it is recommended to continue to lay a parquet between a wall and a fur-tree. When majachnaja the fur-tree is in the premise centre, other numbers lay alternately at first on the one hand fur-trees, then with another.

Having laid all numbers of laths on width of a premise, start a covering of a floor at face walls where there were places of the triangular form. In this case arrive so. From the whole laths dry type a square, line it on a diagonal on two equal half and cut after the spent line or risk. With the triangles received in such a way fill blanks at the face parties (fig. 47.

The Parquet with a frieze lay any drawing: in a fur-tree, the direct and developed square etc. The frieze decorates a floor, it can be with a fringing and without it, a fringing, in turn, - with a ruler, with a vein or with that and another (fig. 48, a-g).

Nastilka of parquet floors with a frieze: and - without a fringing; - with a ruler; in - with a vein; g - with a ruler and a vein; d - a marking of the area of a floor; 1 - a frieze; 2 - a ruler; 3 - a vein

48. Nastilka parquet floors with a frieze :
And - without a fringing; - with a ruler; in - with a vein; g - with a ruler and a vein; d - a marking of the area of a floor; 1 - a frieze; 2 - a ruler; 3 - a vein

At nastilke a parquet with a frieze it is necessary to cut off laths of the necessary sizes rather precisely. The frieze can be any width.

Prior to the beginning vykladyvanija snakes for the basic area of a floor which will be between the laid out frieze, it is necessary to lay some laths of a frieze on the long parties of a premise and between them - a snake. Plancks of a frieze should not reach a wall on 10РјРј. According to the size of the laths which have been picked up for a snake, plan a line majachnoj fur-trees (fig. 48. It is desirable to do friezes of such size that at the general nastilke all laths have been used without a waste. If stack odd number of laths between frieze numbers it is better to move a snake so that one of the laths, adjoining a frieze, it was possible to cut on two equal parts at an angle 45°. If it is impossible to lay out a snake an integer of laths of one length for extreme numbers use laths bolshego or the smaller size.

To a line of friezes lay a parquet usually on both parties majachnoj fur-trees the same as and without a frieze. Last numbers of the laths adjoining friezes, at first stack without mastic, dry. After that in the area of a frieze establish a control ruler and on it a sharp subject, for example shilom, draw a cut edge. Then laths remove, cut off superfluous parts strictly after risk and put on the places on mastic.

After nastilki a parquet to a line of friezes cut frizovye a lath in length on 10РјРј less, than distance from nastlannogo a parquet to a wall. Plancks also use of the smaller size for friezes and with the big distance from a wall, but a backlash block a plinth. Frizovye laths put on mastic. Except the considered variants there are also others. After shvatyvanija mastics plane a parquet, scrape, beat plinths, varnish or rub with mastic.