Joiner's works Joiner's works in rural mestosti Works of the joiner Work of the joiner in a countryside

the Device of floors (ch. 8)


Floors from a parquet on nails on the wooden basis. This basis consists of the board flooring laid on wooden logs. Logs and a flooring antiseptirujut. As logs boards or bruski in the thickness 25-40 and width 80-100мм can serve. The distance between them on the centres depends on a thickness of the boards used for a flooring. At a thickness of boards no more 29мм distance centre to centre a log accept 400-500мм, at a thickness 32-40мм increase to 800-850мм. A flooring carry out from nestroganyh boards of coniferous breeds in width 100-120мм with backlashes between them 5мм. Stack boards alternately serdtsevinnoj the party upwards and downwards that reduces koroblenie.

Humidity a log is supposed no more than 18%, flooring boards - 12%. That to a minimum to reduce koroblenie, flooring boards saw on length, leaving bruski in the width 50-60мм with backlashes between them to 3мм. Small roughnesses of the board basis correct strozhkoj. Before it delete from a flooring dust, a dirt, utaplivajut hats of nails in thickness of wood not less than on 5мм, and superfluous nails delete. Nastilku begin only at humidity of air not over 60% and its temperature not more low 8°Р. Nastlannoe thus the basis completely plane by cars that the floor was equal and smooth.

Ostrogav the basis and having established normal temperaturnovlazhnostnyj a mode indoors, spread a snake so that backlashes between basis boards did not coincide with a face joint of numbers of a parquet (fig. 49, and. Otherwise the nail hammered into a face groove of a lath, will get to a crack between boards and will lower parquet fastening. When lay a parquet on nails the floor basis dim a cardboard, a paper, pergaminom that floors did not creak.

At nastilke with a frieze on the premise centre pull a cord for majachnoj fur-trees. In the rest process nastilki is similar to process nastilki a parquet on mastics.

To fastening of parquet laths apply nails in length 40, thickness 1,6-1,8мм. Into each lath in length to 300мм hammer in three nails: two - in a lateral groove and one - in face. In a lath in length more 300мм hammer in four nails, from them three - into a lateral groove and one - in face.

To Lay a parquet it is possible for one, but it is better together: one worker lays a parquet, the second - selects the right and left laths and displays them on 4-6 pieces in the direction of travel.

The Worker rises on a knee in a direction of packing of laths. The box with nails puts on the left side, in the right hand holds a hammer, in left - dobojnik. At first stacks the right hand the first lath majachnoj fur-trees. Having laid it it is exact on a cord, the right knee presses to the basis, and the left hand takes a nail and directs it to a groove, at an angle 45°. Then easy blow nazhivljaet it and then strong exhausts to a groove. After that on a nail hat puts dobojnik and the third blow utaplivaet a hat till the end of a groove. Having hammered into a lateral groove in two or three nails, in one nail hammer into a face groove.

the Arrangement of numbers of parquet laths at nastilke on the board basis: and - it is correct; - it is wrong; in - splachivanie a parquet by means of a wooden lining

49. An arrangement of numbers of parquet laths at nastilke on the board basis :
And - it is correct; - it is wrong; in - splachivanie a parquet by means of a wooden lining

To the first lath krepit in the same sequence the second but that it has more densely entered a crest into a groove, strikes on its end face a hammer. After that stacks the second row of laths. The right or left hand takes a lath and rallies it with earlier laid by two blows of a hammer. The first blow puts on a lath end face, and the second - on a lateral edge. Thus exhausts a crest in a groove of the next lath. It should adjoin densely to earlier laid. After that the left hand from a box the nail also hammers in a beret at an angle 45°. Having laid one number of a parquet, the worker turns in an opposite side and in the same order continues work.

For work it is better to use a parquet hammer with an oblique sock. Application of usual hammers reduces labour productivity. Not to spoil an edge of laths at them splachivanii a usual hammer, to strike blows follows through a wooden lining (fig. 49. In the considered way lay an ordinary parquet in a fur-tree to the extreme numbers adjoining walls or friezes. Last numbers krepjat only one or two nails depending on a frieze line. A parquet with a frieze lay the same as and on mastic.

Floors from a piece parquet, nastlannye various drawing. the Piece parquet squares, direct and developed, and also straight lines, a carpet and other drawing (fig. 50, a-zh) lay with a frieze and without a frieze.

Nastilka of a piece parquet squares and another risknkom: and, - a direct square; in - the developed square; g - straight lines; d - carpet drawing; e - majachnyj the number of the parquet which has been laid out by a direct square; - the same developed

50. Nastilka a piece parquet squares and another risknkom :
And, - a direct square; in - the developed square; g - straight lines; d - carpet drawing; e - majachnyj the number of the parquet which has been laid out by a direct square; - the same developed

At nastilke direct squares of a lath have in parallel room walls. Thus it is not necessary to cut off laths almost. At nastilke the developed square of a lath have at an angle 45° to premise walls. The developed square can be executed in the way without waste, but it is necessary to saw many laths for filling of triangles which remain in places of an adjunction of a parquet covering to walls and friezes.

Making the plan of packing of a parquet in the form of squares, at first spread a strip from laths on width of a room. It is desirable to select laths of such length that drawing has laid down on the basis with the least quantity of a waste. Certainly, at a wall it is possible to use laths of other sizes. At the correct plan of packing the ends of laths should be sawn off only upon termination of nastilki at one of the short parties of a room.

For nastilki majachnogo of some squares a cord pull across a room. On the tense cord lay laths on mastic or on nails. A majachnyj number lay as it is possible more exactly.

To Lay a parquet drawing "ЁрчтхЁэѕ=№щ ътрфЁр=" begin with trial packing dry squares on a room diagonal. Plancks select such sizes that it was possible to lay an integer of squares across a premise.

The First row lay from a wall on the distance equal to half of a diagonal of a square plus 15-20мм on a backlash between a wall and a parquet. Such distance postpone from opposite corners of a room.

At nastilke a parquet drawing "ЁрчтхЁэѕ=№щ a square with ¶Ёшчрьш" a cord pull not between two opposite walls, and on the contrary, between lines which limit frizovye numbers.

To Lay a parquet with direct drawing simply and consequently the packing plan is not required. For this purpose apply laths in length 350 400мм and width 35-40мм. Not to cut the parquet first row, it is necessary to pull a cord along a long axis of a room. Parquet laths can be applied any length, but necessarily identical width.

To Lay a parquet drawing "ъютхЁ" simply. At first pull a cord, then stack laths along a long wall, and then - it is perpendicular to it.

parquet Furnish. Strozhku of a parquet provide, when it nastlan is negligent also separate laths strongly act or the floor is strongly mature. Planing carry out planes and sherhebeljami with well ground and directed knifes. Work as the tool in a direction of fibres of wood.

The Parquet wiped by a wet rag, moves out easier, but is less pure, than dry. Planing carry out kneeling. Under knees enclose something soft.

Tsiklevanie of a parquet. Scrape on wet wood (to process easier), but after drying on a parquet surface there is a lot of pile. Pile remove well ground and directed tsiklej.

The Order tsiklevanija the following. Floors sweep up, delete separate pollution, wipe a small part of a floor slightly wet rag. To moisten the stronger sex it is impossible, as, drying up, it can warp. TSiklju take two hands, put to a parquet and with pressing move on itself, removing a shaving (fig. 51, and. The removed shaving periodically will sweep away aside. TSiklju conduct along a lath and it is obligatory in a direction of fibres, rather the reverse, that was not zadirov. At tsiklevanii a parquet only smooth out, but do not level. To level a floor, scrape separate places 2-3 times and more, therefore the floor is easier ostrogat.

Tsiklevanie of a parquet: and - tsiklja; - tsiklevanie

51. TSiklevanie a parquet :
And - tsiklja; - tsiklevanie

After tsiklevanija the parquet from firm breeds of wood, for example an oak, becomes shining, and rubbed with mastic or covered with a varnish has good luster. Natirka mastic and a covering a varnish protect floors from fast pollution and humidifying, add to them shine from which the wood structure is more sharply allocated. Care of such floors is more simple and is less labour-consuming, than for not finished.

For natirki a parquet use various mastics: one preliminary dilute with water, others put on a floor a thin layer and rub manually or a floor polisher. The instruction is applied on each mastic (it is printed on packing or on a separate leaf) according to which it is necessary to prepare and use it.

Many masters recommend to rub an oak parquet with water mastics, and beechen and others - waterless. Water mastics plant in strong ware with hot water. From a floor delete a dust and put mastic a brush or a rag a uniform thin layer. As soon as the first layer of mastic will dry up, a floor cover again. After prosyhanija the mastic put of 2 times, rub a parquet with a rigid hair brush or a mechanical floor polisher that many times faster and it turns out with the big shine.

On the basis of turpentine it is not necessary to plant Mastic. Put it 2 times a thin layer on a floor a rag or a rigid brush and pound. Then a parquet rub.

The Covering varnishes more reliably. The varnish is on sale packed into a sealed container on which the instruction on its application is pasted. Floors preliminary carefully clear of pollution and a dust.