Floors arrange from various materials. Irrespective of an applied material, they should be equal, smooth, without cracks between boards, parquet klepkami, cloths nastlannogo linoleum etc. Well nastlannye floors give to a premise a beautiful kind. Care of good floors is much easier, than for bad.
Following demands are made To ground floor floors (over an underground): the underground should be dry; in a socle or the base there should be ventilating apertures for regular airing in a warm season; boards of a floor from the bottom party, logs and beams should be antiseptirovannymi, dry, humidity no more than 12%. Infringement of these requirements leads to fast occurrence of a house mushroom - the dangerous destroyer of wood.
At nastilke floors relative humidity of air should not exceed 60%, and its temperature to be not more low 8°Р. Such vlazhnostnyj the mode should be observed and at operation of floors. At the raised humidity of air of a board or a parquet bulk up, can vspuchitsja, and drying up, - to warp. At the lowered humidity of air (30-40% and more low) floors crack, jarred on, forming cracks. In this case it is necessary to leave opened window leaves, to air premises, to wipe floors slightly damp rag.
The Material for the device of floors is necessary for examining attentively. In it there should not be courses from bugs-drevoedov or traces of occurrence of a house mushroom. The infected wood is better be not to applying, and if it is necessary to use it it is necessary to dry and process preliminary antiseptics before utter annihilation of traces of infection. The crude underground is necessary gidroizolirovat.
Nastilka of deal floors.
Features of the device of deal floors. Deal floors lay directly on beams if they are located on the necessary distance from each other, and boards-not stacked on them cave in during circulation. When beams are laid seldom, and boards for nastilki a floor thin on the beams having antiseptirovannye linings from wood-fiber plates or other material, at first stack logs humidity no more than 18%. Walls do to protect from penetration on them of a sound from circulation or blows on a floor it.
The Design of deal floors can be different. At the device of floors on ferro-concrete overlapping (fig. 37, logs stack on distance from each other 400-500мм, but not directly on overlapping, and on the linings laid on all their length from antiseptirovannoj a wood-fiber plate. When floors lay on brick (fig. 37, 6) or to concrete columns their top part carefully equal that they were in all directions at one level. On top put two layers of roofing felt or roofing material, on them - antiseptirovannuju a wood-fiber lining, and on it - to a log. If an underground insufficiently dry the waterproofing is better for putting at two levels: on top of brick columns and on 100 150мм above ground level.
37. Designs of deal floors :
And - on ferro-concrete overlapping; - on brick columns; 1 - a board flooring; 2 - logs; 3 - a sound-proof lining on all length a log; 4 - a ferro-concrete plate of overlapping; 5 - roofing felt; 6 - a brick column
The Floor should be laid very precisely. Therefore beams and logs stack strictly on level, on length and width of a premise. Logs apply from nestroganyh boards of 2nd and 3rd grades of necessary humidity. Wood can be coniferous and deciduous (except a linden and a poplar).
At packing a log on stolbchatye the bases the distance between such support on axes depends on a thickness a log. At a thickness a log 40мм distance - to 900мм, 50мм - to 1100, 60мм - 1200 1300мм. Thus sledut to consider and a thickness of boards for nastilki a floor. Logs in this case take in the width 100-120мм. On the continuous basis (on plates) stack logs in the thickness 25мм, width 80-100мм. Under these logs necessarily put continuous sound-proof linings from wood-fiber plates in the thickness not less 12,5мм. Logs and linings should be antiseptirovannymi.
If logs stack on interfloor ferro-concrete overlapping sound-proof zasypkoj serve sand, slag with grains is not larger 10мм. Humidity of these materials should be not above 10%. Zasypki fill on all surface of overlapping by an equal layer in the thickness not less 20мм. Logs level, pouring sand under sound-proof linings. Wedges should not be applied to these purposes, can dry up and leave from under a log.
Logs in length not less 1000мм can be joined end-to-end and necessarily on a support. The ends fasten a log, that they have not dispersed. In bottlenecks, for example corridors, logs stack across, and boards - in a movement direction, in premises with windows - across a direction of window light.
Flatness of a surface a log check two-metre fugovannoj rejkoj with level. Rejka should concern laid a log without backlashes. Floor boards lay in two ways: usual - nails drive in from a face sheet of boards and parquet - nails hammer at an angle 45° in a corner of a crest with vtaplivaniem hats in wood.
At building of wooden houses sexual beams often cut into the bottom wreaths. Thus beams are well kept by the ends in walls and do not give the chance to be bent by it towards street. However in this case the sound from a floor is transferred to walls and the raised noise is created. It is better to stack beams on columns and so that the ends of beams did not concern walls or between them there was a sound-proof lining from antiseptirovannyh materials.