the porch Device. Before an input in the house usually arrange a porch (an easy canopy) with a ladder. The porch consists of inclined marches and a horizontal platform, marches - from bowstrings (inclined bruskov), steps and a handrail. The width of a march (length of a step) happens from 1200 to 1450мм, in basements and attics length of a step - 800мм. The width of a bowstring depends on the size of steps, its thickness - 60-70мм, but can be and more.
Steps consist of two separate parts - appear (width of a step) and podstupenka (step height). Width appear - 270-320мм, height podstupenka - 150-180мм. Appear do of one or two boards in the thickness 40-60мм, podstupenok - from one board in the thickness 20-25мм. The more low podstupenok and is wider prostup, the it is easier to walk upstairs. Details of wooden ladders krepjat on nails, screws or thorns, hand-rail to baljasinam - in addition waterproof glue.
At the ladder device (fig. 35) arrive so. First of all prepare a necessary material which should be dry. Then do breakdown, dig poles, put there chairs, cover them with earth and stamp. A part of chairs which is in the earth, plus 200-300мм above the earth, cover with bitumen or bitumen mastic. It increases term of their service almost in 2 times, but provided that a material dry. It is not necessary to apply a crude material, and its any protection against rotting does not give positive results. After that cut off top of chairs strictly at one level, do on them zapily for thorns and choose a wood part (usually chop off). All can be made it in advance but then to establish chairs at one level much more difficultly.
In lezhnjah (logs) choose nests and put on their nests thorns of chairs. If all it is laid is inexact, to logs krepjat bruski, nailing up. That it not to do, it is necessary to establish chairs precisely at one level. After that prepare a bowstring, krepjat it to lezhnjam, beat a flooring and steps (fig. 35, and and. For durability it is possible to replace wooden chairs concrete or ferro-concrete, thus it is desirable to arrange under a porch a concrete platform with a bias for water drainage. It protects wood from rotting.
35. Ustorojstvo a porch :
And - a general view; - the porch device; in - wooden steps; g - a bowstring and it opiranie on a bar; d - baljasnik: 1, 10 - bowstrings; 2 - bruski; 3 - lezhni; 4, 12 - chairs; 5 - a chair; 6 - brusok; 7 - a flooring; 8 - appear; 9 - podstupenok; 11 - lezhni; 13 - hand-rail; 14 - a curbstone
Boards appear is better to connect in a thorn, podstupenok with prostupju to fasten a thorn (fig. 35.
Bowstrings can be a various design. Most simple of them - a board with the cut out ledges for packing on them prostupej and podstupenkov (fig. 35 see, and the strongest and difficult in manufacturing - with vrezannymi in it steps (fig. 35,). Bowstrings with vrezannymi steps is better to collect in a march and in the collected kind to establish. Bowstrings it is possible krepit differently. We will consider the most simple way of fastening.
To ploshchadochnoj to a beam krepjat a board with corresponding cuts - by grooves into which insert bowstring thorns (see fig. 35. Fix thorns to a board nails, steel strips or skobami. Having made steps and a platform, start protection manufacturing (fig. 35,). First of all put curbstones, mark and hollow nests in prostupjah and hand-rail for baljasin in which do thorns. The form baljasin and hand-rail can be various. Krepit them it is necessary so that curbstones and protections did not shake. From sides the porch and curbstones is recommended to be boarded. For protection of a porch from a rain and snow over it arrange a peak (roof).