For dolblenija and wood cutting apply chisels and chisels.
Chisels and chisels. Chisels (fig. 19, use for dolblenija various nests and eyes in thin details, for zachistki wood in nests and eyes, and also for cutting of agnails, facets, edges etc. Chisels happen flat and semicircular. They consist of a cloth, a neck, a nimbus against which the handle leans, and shaft, and it put on the handle. That the handle did not break up, on it from the bottom party krepjat a cap. Length of cloths of chisels - 95-120мм, width - 4-50, a thickness - 2-3мм.
For formation of a cutting edge, or simply pressed, cloths of chisels chamfer at an angle 25®5°. At the chisels intended for a carving, a facet remove at an angle 18-20°.
To Cut wood a chisel under such corner of sharpening it is much easier. Handles produce from firm breeds of a tree - an oak, a beech, a hornbeam, a maple, an ash-tree, a white acacia or shock-resistant plastic. At the top of the handle round off not to injure a hand.
19. Dolblenie both cutting by chisels and chisels :
And - chisels: 1 - a cloth; 2 - a neck; 3 - a nimbus; 4 - a cap; 5 - a shaft; 6 - the handle; - chisels: 1 - a cloth; 2 - a neck; 3 - a nimbus; 4 - kolpachek; 5 - the handle; 6 - a ring; in dolblenie: 1 - brusok with risks; 2 - sequence dolblenija; 3 - prvilno the executed nest; 4 - incorrectly executed nest; g - cutting by a chisel: 1 - planing; 2 - performance zakruglenija; 3 - a nest cutting; 4 - a groove cutting; 5 - cutting on a ruler
Cloths of chisels produce from a steel of marks 9ХФ, 7ХФ, 9ХС, VG, UG, У7А, У8, Ufa. Often them do of old files of the different form which preliminary release on fire that they corresponded to the marks of a steel listed above.
Working capacity of chisels define cutting of the sample of an end face of wood of firm breeds by humidity of 10-16%. For cloth chisels in width 4-8мм the cut area should be not less than 25, 10-18мм - 50, 20-30мм - 75, 40-50мм - 100см 2 .
The Cutting edge (sting) after test should not have mechanical damages, pritupleny, a bend. The cut surface should be smooth, without smjatija fibres.
Chisels joiner's (fig. 19, 6) have width of cloths 6-20мм, a thickness - 8-11мм, length, as at chisels. Produce from a steel of the same marks, as well as a chisel. Top of handles put on a ring protecting the handle from destruction at drawing on it of blows.
Dolblenie of apertures and wood cutting. At dolblenii or cutting of wood a detail strongly fix on a workbench. Not to spoil a workbench cover, under a detail it is recommended to enclose a board. Large details at dolblenii in them of apertures often press to a workbench weight of the body, that is sit down on them so that the left hand held a chisel, and right kijanku. Having wider obushok, than at a hammer, kijanka is less dangerous in an operating time, than a hammer.
Dolblenie carry out so (fig. 19. By means of a surface gauge, a square or a ruler mark ostrugannuju a detail. Risks spend simple, ostrozatochennym a pencil strictly on the size of a nest or an eye both with obverse, and from a detail underside. Nests and eyes hollow out at first on the one hand on half of thickness of a detail, then - with another up to the end. Dolblenie it is considered correct when risks remain a bit visible. A chisel always put to perpendicularly hollowed out aperture. kijankoj it is necessary to put blows only along a chisel axis.
Dolblenie conduct in the following sequence. On distance 1-1,5мм from risks establish a chisel a flat side aside risks or a facet in a nest and strike blow, usually deepening a chisel in wood on 5-10мм. If the chisel has more deeply entered into wood and is hardly pulled out, it should be shaken. Having taken out a chisel, it put in a nest a sting in a direction to the cut wood, approximately at an angle 45°. To a chisel strike blow and cut down the cut wood (in drawing it is shown by dashed lines). Then a chisel put in the first position and hollow out thus a nest on half of depth or a thickness of a detail.
Then precisely also cut down wood from other end of a nest. After that a detail overturn on 180° that is an underside upwards, and precisely also choose wood from a nest. After that smooth out a nest.
Both a chisel, and a chisel, it is recommended to take on width of a nest. A chisel put strictly vertically after risk but so that the sting on a quarter of a thickness risks receded from it. To a chisel strike blow, cutting off the remained wood. It do on one and other party but so that nest walls were strictly vertical to face sheets.
The Nest and a thorn carry out so that the thorn with some effort entered into a nest, it provides durability of connection. It is impossible to do a thorn of slightly more aperture of a nest that it hardly, at strong drawing of blow, entered into it. The detail can break up.
wood Cutting is shown in drawing 19, Often it is necessary to cut off facets, edges, to cut on a ruler, to round off the ends of details, to choose wood from the sawn through grooves etc.
We Will remind that chisels to a carving is better to apply with more flat facet, and handles - without the sharp edges injuring hands. - difficult reception, but it it is necessary to apply planing by chisels at planing of curve surfaces and such places which is difficult for processing other tool. The chisel cuts wood much easier if cloth it to hold a little obliquely to wood fibres. On the chisel handle it is necessary to press the right hand and simultaneously a cloth sideways left, shifting thereby a chisel a little aside.
At the device of a facet a shaving remove thin, carrying out it for two-three receptions. The chisel should be conducted so that it did not shake and did not warp.