Drilling choose in wood round apertures for nagelej, round thorns, bolts, screws, and also delete (drill) knots of wood with the subsequent them zadelkoj wooden stoppers. Much faster to hollow out various nests, preliminary having drilled apertures. To drilling apply various drills and buravy, perform this work as the mechanised way or manually.
To rotate any drill, it should be fixed in the tool for drilling, that is in rotation or a drill.
Rotations and drills. and drills produce Rotations of two types. KT - with a rattle, KU - universal. Rotation of the first type is extended more widely, but is easier and cheaper than rotation of the second type.
Rotation with a rattle (fig. 20, consists of a cranked core of the top press head, the handle, the ring switch, the ratchet mechanism and a cartridge. This rotation, having the switch, allows to use the right and left drills. In a rotation cartridge it is possible to fix drills with round or square shafts in diameter 3-10РјРј, thus drills should be precisely on its axis. The drill which has been brought down from an axis, it is impossible to drill an aperture precisely.
If it is necessary to apply drills with thicker shafts them or grind off, observing corresponding accuracy of centering, or weld on them a shaft of the round or square form in diameter to 10РјРј. Square shafts have the cone-shaped form.
the Drill shesterenchatuju apply to the same purposes, as rotation. Thanking shesterenchatoj to transfer speed of rotation of a drill much more, than at rotation.
the Drill screw is a steel core with a carving, fixed sharnirno in a head-fungus with the metal handle-washer and a cartridge for fastening of drills in diameter no more 5РјРј. The drill from handle-nut movement on length of a core, that is from a fungus to a cartridge and back owing to what the core rotates works.
20. Drilling :
And - rotation with a rattle: 1 - a cartridge; 2 - the ratchet mechanism; 3 - the ring switch; 4 - the handle; 5 - a cranked core; 6 - a head press; - drills: 1 - lozhechnoe; 2 - tsentrovoe; 3 - twisted; 4 - spiral; 5 - bestsentrovoe (probochnoe); 6 - zenkovochnoe; 7 - shilovoe
Drills and buravy. To drilling apply drills of different length, diameter, forms and appointments. Produce them from a steel of marks РЈ7, РЈ7Рђ, РЈ8Рђ, etc. Shafts of drills happen square, cone-shaped more often, round meet less often.
Drills lozhechnye (fig. 20, 1) are intended for drilling of apertures up and down fibres of wood of small depth under nageli, screws, screws. Produce in diameter 3-16РјРј. At sharpening of both edges can work in both parties. Apertures turn out insufficiently exact and pure. For removal of a shaving the drill should be taken out.
Drills tsentrovye (fig. 20, 2) are intended for drilling of apertures of small depth across fibres at drilling to the right (clockwise). Produce drills in diameter 12 50РјРј. They consist of an edge, or the centre, dorozhnika and a cutter. Apertures turn out pure and correct. At drilling in a face direction the drill easily deviates aside. Drills twisted (fig. 20, 3) have on 2 / 3 the length the screw form, on the screw and there is a shaving an aperture. Produce in diameter 6-40РјРј. Work across wood fibres, carrying out very pure apertures.
Drills spiral (fig. 20, 4) remind themselves drills on metal. Apply to drilling of apertures across fibres. Produce in diameter 0,25-65РјРј. Drill pure and exact apertures.
Drills bestsentrovye (fig. 20, 5) apply to drilling of not through apertures with a pure bottom. Widely use for drilling of knots and nests under zadelku wooden stoppers. Produce in diameter 6-30РјРј.
Drills zenkovochnye (fig. 20, 6) apply for rassverlivanija apertures under heads of screws. Produce in diameter 20, 25 and 32РјРј. Consist of a core with a conic head on which surface there are cutters in the form of the sharp teeths sharpened by a file.
Drills shilovye (fig. 20, 7) apply to drilling of nests under screws. The form remind the trihedral sewed, therefore it is possible to work as them in the right and left parties.
Drills universal sliding (fig. 20, are convenient that them it is possible to drill apertures with gradual increase in diameter, beginning from 0,5РјРј. Usually drill apertures in diameter from 15-20 to 50-75РјРј. There are various complete sets of universal drills of small and big diameter. For example, at diameter of the basic drill 20РјРј and the same length of a mobile cutting part the basic drill it is possible to drill apertures in diameter 20РјРј, and with installation of a mobile part - 20,5-50РјРј. To fix a mobile part less than on 5РјРј in the basic drill it is not recommended. When apply the mobile cutting part which length is more than diameter of the basic drill it is possible to drill an aperture still bolshego diameter.
The Drill universal consists of the basic part, a clamping lath, which krepjat a mobile cutting part - a cutter, and also the screw, a groove, a mobile cutting part of a cutter on which is available dorozhnik with a cutting edge. In the bottom of the basic part of a drill there is a screw, it is screwed in in wood, gradually involving behind itself a drill. The bottom part of a drill consists of the screw and a cutter. In them bore where place a clamping lath and a groove for a mobile cutter is arranged. The groove is arranged under the form "С‹СЂС‘=СЋС‘СЉС€СЌСЂ В§С‚СЋС‘=СЂ". From the back party of a mobile cutter is available shponka too under the form "С‹СЂС‘=СЋС‘СЉС€СЌСЂ В§С‚СЋС‘=СЂ". At an insert in a groove of a cutter it strong nestles a lath which is strongly kept by the screw.
Before an insert in a groove of a cutter the screw unscrew a little, the lath departs, and the mobile cutter with the shponkoj freely enters into a groove. At zavertyvanii the screw the lath strong presses a cutter. On a cutter there are millimetric divisions on which establish diameter of apertures.
Drills on metal (fig. 20, any diameter apply to wood drilling up and down fibres, but they give inexact and insufficiently pure (fragmentary) apertures. For reception of pure and exact apertures usual drills should be ground specially, as is shown in drawing. They work at rotation to the right.
Buravy - more often ulitkoobraznye or screw drills, but longer, than applied to rotation, with an ear for the handle on the end. Produce different diameter and apply to drilling of deep apertures.
Small apertures, diameter from 2 to 10РјРј, bore through gimlets. They shorter, than buravy.
Technics of drilling. At a marking the aperture centre pin shilom or plan crossing of two lines. A drill establish precisely in that place where it is planned risk, and is easier - precisely in the aperture centre.
It is not necessary to press a drill having on the end an edge or screw zaglubitel strongly. The screw zaglubitelja itself is easily screwed in in wood. Pressing is necessary for a drill without zaglubitelja, but not so strong. At drilling the axis of rotation of rotation or a drill should coincide with an axis of a drilled aperture.
Drill apertures rotation so. The right hand take it for the handle, and left hold for a head or a fungus, pressing them from top to bottom. A drill direct strictly vertically to a detail surface. Some masters press a forehead the left hand, increasing pressing a drill and keeping rotation in steady position, thus observe of drill position (fig. 20.
When drill horizontal apertures the head supported by the left hand rests against the case or a knee of the left foot of the working.
Through apertures do not bore through at one time on the one hand preparation, and carry out counter drilling from an opposite side. Certainly, the aperture can be drilled and at one time through, for this purpose a detail stack on a board, densely press and drill.
Pressing a drill depends on its design and hardness of wood. It is not recommended to press a drill strongly. Being engaged in drilling, it is necessary to remember that the drill of any type should be fixed in rotation or a drill it is very strong.