For grinding of a surface of wood, shpaklevannyh, grounded, varnish and other coverings apply various grinding materials: skins, powders and pastes.
Grinding skins is a tool on a flexible basis, that is on a paper or a fabric, covered with a corresponding sheaf (for example, glue) and strewed by an abrasive powder of different granularity. Are intended for dry and wet grinding. Skins produce two types - rolled () and sheet (). The sizes of sheets and length of rolls the different. Grinding materials - abrasives happen glass, silicon, quartzitic, elektrokorundovye various granularity. Granularity numbers: 40, 32, 25, 20, 16, 12, JU, 8, 6, 5, 4: М63, М50, М40, М28, М20, М14. The skin with the M letter before number is called as micron, that is very small. The first time grind skins № 16-12 with gradual reduction of granularity.
Grinding powders - dry abrasive grains. Paint and varnish coverings grind a powder of pumice or trepela, more often with moistening liquids: turpentine, kerosene, oil, water.
Grinding pastes - abrasive powders (pumice, trepel, electrocorundum, silicon carbide), pounded on readily soluble binding (non-drying fats, oils, wax, paraffin, etc.). As solvents turpentine, kerosene, uajt-spirit, and a thinner - water serve.
Polishing structures apply to giving to paint and varnish coverings of the raised shine, and also for their alignment. To these structures carry also the so-called levelling liquids consisting of a mix of flying organic solvents with various additives. Levelling liquids delete rather large roughnesses of paint and varnish films and polish nitrovarnish coverings. In the course of work these coverings under the influence of a tampon are softened and levelled. The expense of liquids RME and НЦ-313 - 70-100 g/m 2 .
Polishing liquids (structures) are similar on levelling, but are less active. Them smooth (by means of a tampon) various smallest roughnesses of a covering. Instead of a liquid it is possible to apply polishing pastes which structure includes abrasive powders of small granularity and hardness. In the course of polishing on a product surface there are oils and fats which promote fast pollution of a surface at the expense of subsidence on it to a dust. For removal of these pollution the industry lets out special structures: polishing water № 18, wax polishing structure № 3. Except these structures it is possible to apply strongly diluted spirit.
Obessmolivajushchie structures apply to pitch removal with wood of coniferous breeds. Most widespread of them: 25%-s' solutions of acetone, 5-6%-s' water solution kaltsinirovannoj soda, 4-5%-s' solution kausticheskoj soda. Solutions prepare on hot water in temperature 60-80°Р.
Bleaching structures apply to wood bleaching, more often - for alignment of a kernel and removal of various stains. To such structures carry 15-30%-s' solution of peroxide of hydrogen; 1,5-6%-s' water solution shchavelevoj acids, and also a solution consisting of 10 parts on weight of a water solution of peroxide of hydrogen of 20%-s' concentration and 1 parts of a water solution of ammonia of the same concentration. Apply also other structures.
Film and sheet finishing materials . these materials widely apply to furnish of joiner's and furniture products, pasting on well prepared surface.
Films from synthetic polyvinylchloride pitches happen transparent and pigmentirovannymi, glossy, matte and semimatte, rigid and elastic, are issued by rolls. A thickness of a film - 0,3-0,7мм. Paste perhlorvinilovym glue, latex and other glues-rasplavami.
Polyvinylchloride self-pasted films, having on not obverse (return) party a sticky layer, prikatyvajut or grind in to wood.
Decorative bumazhno-layered plastics, made by hot pressing of several layers of the paper impregnated with pitches, are issued in the form of sheets of the different sizes or rolls. A thickness of sheets - 1-3мм. The surface of sheets can be glossy or matte, one- or multi-colour. Rolled plastics have a thickness of sheet - 0,4-0,6мм.
Plastics to wood paste epoksidnymi, rubber, polyester, karbamidnymi and phenol-formaldegidnymi glues in the hot or cold way.