This process responsible and labour-consuming. At a correct marking it is possible to receive details of the exact sizes, with the minimum waste of wood that plays large role.
The Marking of boards before we will open on preparations is called as preliminary, and the allowance on the further processing, drying and koroblenie in this case is necessarily given. If wood dry drying and koroblenie are not considered. The allowance is an excess of the sizes of preparation in comparison with ready details. The allowance is considered normal on length limits 20-40мм, on width and a thickness - 5мм. Leaving allowances, it is necessary to consider width has spent on drink. For the beginning joiner allowances should be slightly more.
Raskraivat of a board is better on ostrogannoj plasti on which all defects are visible and thus they can be bypassed or cut out. Such variant leads to smaller loss of wood.
Thus, to mark boards or bruski on a detail follows very precisely. Accuracy of a marking depends on skill of the joiner and quality razmetochnogo the tool. Badly made razmetochnyj, or measuring, the tool can lead to errors and the wood over-expenditure.
Saw a tree lengthways or across, plane, hollow, drill, zapilivajut thorns on labels or risks.
The Label-short a hyphen - leave at a tree cutting across is more often; to risk, a long continuous line, plan at a tree cutting up and down. Labels and risks carry out a simple pencil hardness T, TM, M, shilom, a surface gauge, a chisel. It is impossible to apply an indelible pencil which traces come to light even through an oil paint.
To a marking of materials apply following tools: a plumb, correct brusok, or a ruler, rejki, metre collapsible, a surface gauge, a square, erunok, malku, sewed, compasses razmetochnyj, razmetochnuju a comb, templates (fig. 9).
9. The tool and adaptations for a material marking :
And - a plumb; - provrka frames rejkami on diagonals; in - a surface gauge; g - a square joiner's; d - erunok; e - malka; - razmetochnyj compasses; z - razmetochnaja grkbknka; and - a template for a marking of thorns and eyes
the Plumb - the elementary tool applied to check of vertical position, statement of columns or chairs, window and door boxes, and also for a punched hole risok on logs and boards. It consists of cargo - girki, or veska, and a thin cord of the necessary length which reel up on the coil or rogulku. Depending on colour of wood before otbivkoj risks rub a cord with a chalk or coal (brand). The weight veska should be no more 200г.
Correct brusok , or a ruler, the corresponding length, with good otfugovannymi the parties apply to check of flatness of the processed plane of a board and bruska or detail sides.
thin (two pieces) are necessary for Rejki for check of warps in squared shape products. If the sizes on a diagonal identical, means, the product has the correct form.
the Meter collapsible with centimetric and millimetric divisions is necessary for otmerivanija the certain sizes on boards, bruskah, preparations and details. It is necessary to remind that at performance of joiner's works in the basic size of measurement millimetres are considered.
the Surface gauge - apply to drawing risok to in parallel processed edge of a detail. Well visible risks leave on stroganyh surfaces. The surface gauge consists from kolodochki, two brusochkov, square and is more rare round, and a wedge which fix brusochki in the necessary position. On the ends brusochkov are available shpenki, ground sharply on three sides turned outside. They act because of brusochkov on 2-3мм.
the Square is necessary for carrying out of perpendicular lines on preparation, and also for rascherchivanija and checks of rectangular corners of covers and doors, covers of tables etc. It consists from kolodochki in the length 120-150мм and a feather, or a ruler, length 200 250мм. As outside, and from the interior of its corners should be 90°. Except wooden squares it is possible to apply and metal which are not jarred on. It is necessary to watch, that metal squares have not rusted.
Erunok is a square for carrying out of lines at an angle 45° and 135° to an edge of details.
Malka is a universal square with which help it is possible to spend lines to an edge of details under various corners. The ruler malki is put in kolodku sharnirno and fixed in the necessary position by the lambskin screw. At first establish a ruler malki under the necessary corner, using a protractor, and then fix turn of a lamb.
Sewed - serves for drawing risok and piercings of apertures under screws. Sewed can be a different thickness and length, but the handle form should be square or diamond-shaped that promotes easier piercing of apertures. Sewed it is necessary to fix strongly in the handle.
the Compasses razmetochnyj serve for dimensioning and drawing of circles, and also their division into the necessary quantity of parts the Compasses consist of two steel legs and the fixing device - the rotary tape fixed by the screw-lamb.
Razmetochnaja a comb - it wooden brusok with cut and the filled nails which edge acts because of cut on 2-3мм. For one pass the comb leaves on preparation the necessary quantity risok. Apply to a marking of thorns and eyes at mass manufacturing of details that allows to raise labour productivity.
Templates widely apply to a marking at mass preparation of identical details, shipovyh connections, every possible cuttings of merging and escalating etc. Templates produce from plywood, a roofing steel, a tin, plastic, djuralja, thin boards.
To the Beginning joiner it is recommended to learn at first to mark a detail manually, and after reception of skills to start manufacturing of various templates and other adaptations.