Do workbenches on growth of the worker. Workbench height define so. Rise faced to a workbench, lower hands and lift palms. If palms fall on a cover of a workbench and is dense to it adjoin, height normal. Under a low workbench enclose boards of the necessary thickness, at high prostragivajut boots or produce a support - an equal board without prozorov the necessary thickness and stack it about a workbench. Workbenches of factory manufacturing have the identical height calculated on working average growth.
If it is impossible to make a workbench is better to make verstachnuju a board: it is more convenient than a usual simple board with an emphasis.
The Workbench demands regular leaving. It is recommended to grease screws, warped cover prostragivat and periodically olifit. Not to spoil a cover, under processed details enclose a thin board.
Verstachnuju (fig. 7) produce a board from dry pine boards in the thickness 40-60, in the width 300-400, in the length 1500-2000мм. A board plane and collect on shponkah. The it will be more equal, the better.
7. A verstachnaja board and its details :
1 - an emphasis top; 2 - nests; 3 - an emphasis back; 4 - a groove; 5 - a lug; - sliding paltsy; 7 - an emphasis lateral; 8 - processed details; 8 - a wedge; 10 - perestavnoj an emphasis; 11 - a material for perepilivanija; 12 - the strengthened board for zapilivanija thorns
On verstachnoj to a board krepjat two emphasis - top and lateral 7. On other end cut out a groove 4 in the width 80-100мм and depth 200мм. That the board ends were strong, from below to it beat lugs 5 in the length equal to width of a board.
From a lobby, or the worker, the parties verstachnoj on it plasti and to an edge should be drilled boards, better to chisel through an aperture, or nests 2 for an insert klinka or combs. Nests in the size 25x25мм have on distance 50мм from each other. From below verstachnoj boards in skoby insert three or four sliding fingers 6, necessary for deduction of a material during planing. Fingers should be drowned a little from outside board edges. Against a groove strengthen on hinges one or two back or vertical emphasis 3. for work them lift, after work lower.
The Vertical emphasis keeps a material at cross-section sawing up, top and lateral, inserted into apertures, or nests 2 - at planing. Fingers keep a material in horizontal position when it fix in a lateral emphasis 7. That the processed detail 8 strong kept, it krepjat a wedge hammered between nagelem and a detail 8. instead of nagelja it is more convenient to apply perestavnoj an emphasis 10, that is a small plate with two nageljami, strengthened on distance 50мм from each other.
During cross-section pilenija a back emphasis lifts and presses to them a material the left hand. After work an emphasis lowers.
At zapilovke thorns at end faces of a board or bruska the last should be inserted into a groove and to fix a wedge 9, long preparations stack in horizontal position.
Made verstachnuju a board it is possible to have on stools, a low table, kozelkah which do the corresponding height. In a workshop it is better to arrange podverstache in the form of the case of a table or as it is shown for a workbench. podverstache it is possible to use also as a box for tool storage, having upholstered its lateral walls with plywood or other sheet material. If there are metal screws, they can be adapted to verstachnoj to a board.
On a surface verstachnoj boards should not be open acting hats of nails or screws, they should be drowned in thickness of wood, and it is better to close up wooden loose leaves.
In a workshop it is necessary to have a small little table or a bench of the corresponding height on which have bruski and oselki for a point and tool editing. Sharpened it is necessary to put so that on it it was convenient to sharpen the tool. To tool editing on oselke is better to apply liquid lubricating oil (from water oselok quickly becomes unfit for use).
Besides, the joiner needs to have clamps, vajmy and other adaptations, and also the auxiliary tool. To the auxiliary tool carry hammers, kijanki, screw-drivers, rasps, files, pincers and kusachki (fig. 8).
8. Auxiliary instument :
And - a hammer; - kijanka; in - a screw-driver
For joiner's works any hammers with an equal shock surface obushka, and also hammers prizmaticheskoj forms are suitable. Hammers usually nasazhivajut on handles from viscous wood - a cornel, a birch, a hornbeam, etc. At the joiner should be two-three hammers of various weight - 200, 400, 600г. The beginning joiner can manage one hammer in weight 400г.
For drawing of stronger blows use an axe. It is good to have a hammer with small horns of type plaster, they can pull out various nails. Thus, not to crumple a wood surface, under a hammer it is necessary to enclose a piece of a thin board, plywood or a metal plate in the thickness not less 3мм.
In the absence of skills to hammer in nails not simply, they can be bent or go deep into wood slantwise, on year layers, splitting a board or brusok. That it it has not turned out, it is necessary to hold a nail with fingers of the left hand. It is necessary to avoid damage of wood and at utaplivanii a hat in a tree; definitively to hammer in a nail it is recommended through dobojnik - a steel core. Its one end put on a nail hat, and to another strike blows. Instead of dobojnika it is possible to use usual small beards, and for small nails - larger nail. To hammer in nails it is necessary very accurately.
Kijanki are wooden hammers for drawing of blows on chisels and chisels or for performance of other kinds of works. Obushok at kijanki several times it is more obushka than a hammer. A hammer during drawing of blows it is possible to miss, kijankoj - practically is not present.
The Form kijanki can be flat and is more rare round (bochkoobraznoj). Produce it from svilevatoj birches, a hornbeam, karagacha. Prjamoslojnaja nonviscous wood wears out faster. The handle rectangular with the rounded off sharp edges krepjat it is strong in kijanke. The sizes round kijanki the following, mm: height - 180, the greatest diameter - 120, diameter of working end faces (obushkov)-80, length of the handle - 390. Such kijankoj it is possible to strike strong blows, but it is possible to produce kijanki the smaller sizes.
Screw-drivers screw up screws. The width of the pointed or working end of a screw-driver depends on the size of screws, and is easier from diameter of their hat and width shlitsy. Screw-drivers happen unilateral and bilateral (perestavnye) at which the edge ends have various width.
To Screw up screws is better so. First of all pierce shilom or bore through a thin drill of an aperture depth of no more half of length of a screw. Insert into an aperture a screw, press it or slightly hammer a hammer but so that it stood strictly vertically, and then wrap it. Instead of a usual screw-driver often apply rotations that accelerates screwing up of screws. In wood of firm breeds thin apertures bore through or pierce for all length of a screw.
Rasps and files apply for zachistki in various details of the places inaccessible to other tool. The form and their sizes different. Rasps with a large notch leave wood rougher, files with a small notch, or velvet, - a smooth clear wood.
Pincers and kusachki are necessary for vytaskivanija every possible nails or hairpins and otkusyvanija heads of nails (manufacturing of hairpins by that). The tool should be strong, with densely converging sponges.