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Paints. Pigments dry (ch. 2)


Dyes and prograsses . apply to change of colour of wood and giving to it of certain tone by dyeing or toning.

Dyes - painting substances, easily soluble in water, spirit, oil and in many other liquids. Usually dyes prepare 1-3%-s' concentration. They easily get on the big or smaller depth of a painted material. Dyes happen natural and artificial.

For their preparation often use broths of sawdust and shavings of wood of dark colours, onions peel, a bark of an alder, a willow, etc. Guminovye dyes receive from peat soils and brown coals, in the form of brilliant dark brown crystals. Water solutions of these dyes are known under the name nut morilki, or bejtsa. The solution is prepared by 10-40%-s' concentration, wood is painted in brown colour. For giving to wood of dark shades a solution put repeatedly. These dyes possess high light resistance.

The Organic dyes named aniline, are subdivided into straight lines, the basic and acid. Direct dyes in the form of water solutions possess a little dim tone.

The Basic dyes in the form of water or spirit solutions apply to colouring of the wood rich with tannins or preliminary processed by a solution hrompika. Possess pure and bright colours, but there is not enough svetostojki. Dyes of brown colour are steadier.

Acid dyes apply in the form of water solutions, but it is better acidified by acetic acid. Paint wood in bright and pure colours, it is enough svetostojki.

Solutions from organic dyes receive, dissolving 1-5г dye in 1л waters that depends on tone of dyeing.

Prograsses - various salts, tannins, acids. Protravnoe dyeing (etching) differs high light resistance. Iron kuporos paints wood from grey to black colour; copper kuporos, hrompik natrievyj, hrompik kalievyj, chloric copper - in yellowy-brown with different shades. Liquid ammonia paints the wood containing tannins, in yellowy-brown colour. Prograsses apply cautiously, dissolving them in hot water in glass or faience ware. In metal ware they change the properties.

Solvents, thinners, softeners, sikkativy, porozapolniteli.

Solvents - the flying liquids, capable to dissolve pitch, oils, cellulose to working viscosity. Apply also for razbavlenija ready solutions.

To solvents carry gasoline, kerosene, uajt-spirit, toluene, etc. Solvent 645 dilutes nitrovarnishes, nitroenamels, etc.

Thinners - liquids, more often not dissolving pitches, oils and other substances, and doing them more liquid.

Produce different marks: РКБ-1, РКБ-2, etc.

Softeners - non-drying liquids: oils, aethers, spirits, etc.

Sikkativy - the liquids accelerating drying of oils and oil paints. Are issued by the industry of light and dark tones. Add in oil or oil structures from 2 to 5% to their weight. Surpluses sikkativov reduce quality of oils or paints.

Porozapolniteli are the structures put on preliminary grounded and not grounded surface before use of transparent coverings.

They can be colourless or painted under colour of wood.

Let out different marks: КФ-1, КФ-2, ПМ-11, K.Vkljuchajut's L plenkoobrazovatel and napolnitel which mix before the use.

In quality porozapolnitelej use also the wax mastics consisting of various components, expressed in weight parts: beeswax - 40, turpentine - 60 or paraffin 60 and gasoline-solvent - 40.

For preparation of mastic on the basis of starch take necessary materials (in weight parts): natural drying oil, or oksol - 34, turpentine - 9, sikkativ - 3, starch - 54. Starch carefully mix at first with turpentine, then - with sikkativom and drying oil.

For preparation of the mastic containing rosin, take following materials (in weight parts): drying oil oksol - 10, sikkativ - 2, turpentine - 3, rosin - 15, talc - 70. Rosin plavjat in a water bath, pour in turpentine, sikkativ, then drying oil and after mixing pour talc. The received structure carefully mix.

It is possible to prepare also the mastic consisting of such components (in weight parts): drying oils oksol - 60, turpentine - 30, ohry, umbry or other dry pigment - 10. Drying oil mix with turpentine, and then add a pigment at careful hashing.

The Considered mastics-porozapolniteli dry up on the average for days.