Pigments represent mineral (natural) and artificial thin powders. Possess following properties: are sifted through a sieve having 1482 apertures on 1см 2 ; are not dissolved in water, oil and other solvents, through a small time interval settle on a bottom, and on a surface there is a pure water, oil or other solvent; change goes under the influence of the sun and at repeated humidifying.
From the pigments mixed with a chalk, prepare various water (glutinous), limy or other painting structures.
Oil and enamel paints . represent a mix of pigments with the drying oil, received as a result of long retyranny by special cars or spherical mills to very thin condition. Paints let out ready to the use or gustotertye. To working viscosity gustotertye paints plant with drying oil, sometimes with addition sikkativa, turpentine or other solvent.
On packing with a paint there is an instruction specifying, it is intended for what kinds of works, and also how many it is required on 1м 2 and drying terms.
It is necessary to remember that at mixing of pigments with drying oil in house conditions receive oil paints very much poor quality.
The pigment Small amount can be added in grated oil paints for podtsvetki. Such paints are recommended to be applied only to internal works.
Enamel paints (enamel) produce from pigments and oil varnishes also by long retyranny, in comparison with oil paints possess good luster. Enamels let out different colours, names, for internal and external works, and also for colouring of a tree, metal etc.
Except oil enamels use spirit, nitrocellulose, nitrogliftalevye, etc. On each packing with enamel there is an instruction on its application,
First coats, shpatlevki, zamezki. First coats are liquid painting structures, for example an oil paint of different density. With first coats usually cover shpaklevannye and other surfaces. On the dried up first coat a product paint.
Shpatlevki - testoobraznye the weights prepared on glue, drying oil, varnishes etc. Them put on prooliflennuju a surface for alignment of every possible defects or giving bolshej smoothnesses. SHpatlevki can be white and colour, into them enter dry or grated paints. For the best drying in shpatlevki add quick-drying solvents, glues, etc.
Putties - more dense weights, than shpatlevka. Prepare basically from drying oil and dry tonkosejanogo a chalk, mixing on equal sheet of a steel, plastic, plywood. For podtsvetki add pigments or grated oil paints. Depending on appointment they can be dense and liquid (bed putty).
Apply for obmazyvanija folds of covers after a glass insert.
Varnishes and polishes. It is liquid film-forming substances in the various solvents, capable to leave after drawing on a surface a firm brilliant or matte covering. Solvents are necessary for manufacturing of varnishes and polishes: spirit, drying oil, oils and pitches.
Spirit varnishes prepare from spirit and pitches. Especially widely apply ethyl spirit (it is very poisonous) and shellakovuju pitch, it is frequent with the rosin additive. Varnishes dry up rather quickly.
Oil varnishes represent a solution of pitches in drying up oils and in solvents with the additive sikkativov. These varnishes dry up for 48ч and even much more. For drying acceleration in varnishes add no more than 7-10% sikkativov from weight of oil. Distinguish varnishes light 4с, 5с, 7с and dark 4т, 5т and 8т. Varnishes 4с, 4т dry 36 ch; 5с, 5т - 48; 7с, 7т - 24ч. To a covering of floors widely apply a varnish № 350.
Nitrocellulose varnishes (nitrovarnishes) prepare from varnish koloksilina different marks, pitches and softeners in a mix with flying organic solvents.
These varnishes quickly dry up, leaving firm enough and proof elastic films with which it is possible to polish. Happen transparent cold and hot drawing; matirujushchie, acid hardening - transparent. Widely apply to furnish of various joiner's products.
Except the listed varnishes use polyester, a polyether-maleinatnye, poliuretanovye, perhlorvinilovye, etc.
Polishes are the liquid varnishes consisting of polishing pitches. Spirit polishes prepare from spirit and shellac of several colours: № 13 - light brown, № 14 - dark brown, № 15 - red-crimson, № 16 - black-dark blue. Apply iditolovuju and nitropolishes.