To wood pasting apply various glues: gljuteinovye (bone and mezdrovyj), kazeinovyj and synthetic.
Preparation gljuteinovogo glue. Bone and mezdrovyj glues possess big vlagopogloshchajushchej ability. They absorb waters more the than weight: bone - in 3-7 times, mezdrovyj - at 6-10 time. Thus glues strongly bulk up. The bulked up glue at heating plavitsja also passes in a solution. Except firm glue use so-called galertu (liquid glue), which plavitsja at temperature 22-23°Р.
At tverdenii glue there is a removal of a moisture from a solution that causes usadku gluing approximately on 50-80% from initial weight. During pasting glue put in the thickness from 0,08 to 0,15мм. At air temperature 30°Р and humidity of 80% glutinous connection collapses (plavitsja). Durability of pasting mezdrovogo glue: ekstry, the higher and 1st grades - 100 kgs/sm 2 , 2nd grades - 70, 3rd grades - 60 kgs/sm 2 bone glue: the premium - 90, 1st - 80, 2nd - 65, 3rd - 45 kgs/sm 2 .
In practice durability of pasting check simply: two bruska 600-700мм stick together in the length on a smooth fugue (fugovannye the parties) and in a day split a chisel on sklejke. At good pasting bruski break up on wood, at bad - on a glutinous seam. To glue preparation apply klejanku, consisting of two vessels: in one there is a water, in other - glue.
Tiled glue gljuteinovyj preliminary split into small pieces, put in klejanku, fill in with room temperature water, it is better boiled. Glue should be in water completely. Presoak glue during 6-12ч before full swelling. At swelling mezdrovyj glue absorbs 600-1000% of water, bone - 300-700% of water from the weight.
Water in klejanke heat up to 70-80°Р, glue plavitsja and turns to a solution. In the course of fusion glue intensively mix, that it faster plavilsja and in it there were no lumps. Glue follows plavit not directly on fire where it burns slightly, and in hot water or on pair. Foam allocated with glue there and then remove. Getting on stuck together surfaces, it reduces durability of pasting. At long heating or kipjachenii glue loses the gluing properties. That in a glutinous solution was less foam and air vials, the solution before the use should settle during 5-10мин. If glue strongly allocates foam it is better for boiling 2-3мин and it is obligatory to remove all foam.
The Temperature of bone glue should be 40-60°Р, mezdrovogo - 50-70°Р. Therefore water in klejanke should be the same temperature. A consistence (density) of a glutinous solution define so. Glue of a normal consistence flows down from a brush or veselki an equal, continuous, appeared through stream, without clots, liquid - fast, a squirt; very dense - a faltering stream, with clots. A consistence of a glutinous solution choose depending on breeds of wood: for firm breeds - liquid, for soft - more densely. Glue of normal density apply to pasting of an ash-tree, a birch, a maple.
It is recommended to prepare such portion of a glutinous solution that she could be spent without additional heating. If glue remained, it merge in pure ware, store at temperature 5-10°Р, and at long storage add in it a solution of crystal phenol (0,25% from weight of dry glue). For pasting on a smooth fugue concentration of a glutinous solution mezdrovogo glue - 35-40%, bone - 45-55%. At interline interval gluing use mezdrovyj glue of concentration of 40-45%, bone - 52-55%.
In practice for glue preparation normal density it is recommended to take on 1 weight part of dry bone glue 1-1,5 weight parts of water, and for mezdrovogo - 3-4 weight parts of water. Mezdrovyj glue seizes faster bone which is required in 1,5-2 times more than mezdrovogo.
Density mezdrovogo and bone glue is of great importance. It is difficult to put excessively dense glue on stuck together surfaces. Such glue quickly zastudnevaet, and at zapressovke demands an elevated pressure. At insufficient pressure the thick glutinous layer more 0,15мм is formed in the thickness that reduces durability of pasting. If glue very liquid the glutinous layer less 0,8мм can turn out that also lowers durability of pasting.
The Liquid glutinous solution in practice it is frequent uvarivajut kipjacheniem, but it reduces its gluing ability, therefore a glutinous solution it is better to prepare for more dense, than liquid.
Except pasting on a smooth fugue and gluing of an interline interval the joiner should stick together products from thicker details, as that: covers, doors, boards, etc. At pasting of a file from bruskov on a wide plane density (concentration) of bone glue should be 50%, mezdrovogo - 34%. The average expense of dry glue on 1м 2 : bone - 240г, mezdrovogo - 150г.
At pasting bruskov on an edge, shipovyh connections and connections on a moustache use bone glue concentration of 45%, mezdrovyj - 30%. Dry glue it is required on 1м 2 : bone - 350г, mezdrovogo - 210г.
Preparation kazeinovogo glue. Kazeinovyj should not be cooked glue, it apply in a cold condition. It seizes slowly, forming insoluble connections in water. Prepare it from dairy casein in the form of a powder into which all components, except water enter.
Working life kazeinovogo glue in a powder - 5 months.
Prepare a solution kazeinovogo glue so. Weight parts give a dry powder of glue and water in temperature 10-25°Р. In pure ware pour water and pour a powder at careful hashing during 30мин or hour. Mix with small breaks. After hashing the viscous weight of serovato-white or slightly violet colour with a kerosene smell turns out homogeneous smetanoobraznaja. Foam from a solution necessarily remove. If there are clots the glutinous solution should be filtered through a pure sieve. In a glutinous solution it is impossible to add water. The ready solution flows down from a wooden shovel continuous struen or a thread, leaving on a shovel surface a brilliant film. The glue taken by fingers forms lasting threads.
The ready glutinous solution depending on a compounding during 4-7ч then gets thick Operates. The thickened glue which has lost ability to flow down from a rake or a brush, not goden to the use. It is not supposed razbavlenie a glutinous solution by water. A usual glutinous solution prepare from 1 weight part of a powder of dry glue and 1,7-2,3 weight parts of water.
At pasting shipovyh connections "эр ѕё" face and semiface connections, priklejke corners, lugs on 1 weight part of dry glue take 1,8 weight parts of water. On 1м 2 a stuck together surface spend 180-250г dry glue.
At pasting bruskov on 1 weight part of dry glue take 2 weight parts of water. On 1м 2 it is required to a stuck together surface 160-230г dry glue. At plywood pasting on 1 weight part of dry glue take 2,2 weight parts of water. On 1м 2 surfaces take 160-230г dry glue.
From 1 weight part of dry glue and 1,8 weight parts of water receive 2,8 weight parts of a glutinous solution. If take 2 weight parts of water receive 3 weight parts of a solution, if 2,2 weight parts of water, 3,2 weight parts of a solution. Kazeinovye glues give strong connections, possess strong shchelochnostju, paint the wood especially rich with tannins, in zheltovato-greenish colour.