Pilenie widely apply to tree processing. Joiners basically use nozhovki and luchkovye saws with which saw across, along fibres and at an angle. Therefore saws should have teeths for longitudinal, cross-section and mixed pilenija. At saws longitudinal pilenija teeths have the oblique-angled form with a small inclination aside pilenija. Work as such saw in a direction from itself. Saws for the mixed cutting are replaced simultaneously with two saws longitudinal and cross-section pilenija, teeths have the form of a rectangular triangle and saw them only from itself. To a cross-section cutting apply saws with teeths in the form of an isosceles triangle (fig. 11, saw such saw in both parties, that is back and forth.
11. A point, editing and adjustment of saws :
And - elements of a tooth of a saw and corners of teeths of saws of different function: I - zhlementy a saw tooth: 1 - a tooth step; 2 - a forward short cutting edge; 3 - a forward side (grudka); 4 - lateral cutting edges; 5 - a saw cloth; 6 - a line of the basis of teeths; 7 - tooth height; 8 - tooth top; 9 - a bosom; II - zubmja saws for longitudinal pilenija; III - teeths of a saw for mixed pilenija; IV - teeths of a saw for longitudinal pilenija; - luchkovaja a saw: 1 - a saw cloth; 2 - the handle (shahovka); 3 - a rack; 4 - rasporka (srednik); 5 - a bowstring; 6 - zakrutka (latch); in - nozhovki: 1 - wide; 2 - obushkovaja; 3 - narrow (kurkovaja); 4 - nagradki; g - the form of cloths of saws with trapezoid ushireniem and usual; d - distributings: 1 - without the terminator (simple); 2, 3 - with the terminator; 4 - the most simple; e - a vice wooden; - alignment of divorce of teeths of a saw; z - a clip of a saw during its point: 1 - brusok; 2 - a wedge; 3 - a board (cheek); 4 - a saw; And - sequence of a point of a cross-section saw; to - a point of a longitudinal saw; l - a point sieshannoj saws; m - fugovka teeths of saws: 1 - a saw; 2 - a file; 3 - kolodka; n - the machine tool for a notch of teeths of saws: 1 - a matrix; 2 - a punch; about - correct installation of a cloth of a saw
In all saws intervals between teeths name bosoms, and sometimes - hollows. Appointment of bosoms to collect sawdust and at an exit from has spent on drink to throw out them. Teeths at saws happen different height and to different step. This data also defines the sizes of teeths.
the tooth Step is a distance between tops a number of the located teeths. The tooth height is a distance from top of a tooth to the basis by which measure on a perpendicular.
The Tooth of each saw has three cutting edges. At teeths of saws for longitudinal pilenija the forward side is called grudkoj , and back - as a back. the Short edge, obrazuemaja grudkoj and a back, is cutting, and lateral edges grudki cut from lateral faces has spent on drink wood fibres, and has spent on drink becomes purer. Teeths of saws for mixed pilenija also work. At saws for cross-section pilenija wood fibres are cut with lateral edges, and stratifying of fibres is carried out by a forward edge, that is tooth top. It is necessary to pay attention to corners of a point of teeths for soft wood: at longitudinal saws it is equal 40-50° for firm wood - 70°; at the mixed cross-section saws - accordingly 50-60° and 60-70 degrees. Effective corners of cutting for longitudinal pilenija - 60-80° for mixed - 90° and for cross-section - 90-120°.
Manual saws . these saws happen two-manual, luchkovye, nozhovki and nagradki. A cloth of any saw - the steel tape of the necessary width, a thickness and - produce length from a steel of marks 9ХФ, У8ГА, У10А, У12А.
Saws cross-section two-manual apply more often to a cutting across logs, ranges, bars, etc. Cloths of saws happen different length to handles on the ends. It is recommended to plant teeths of such saws on 1мм thicker than a cloth of a saw or 0,5мм on each party. Working ability of saws, or their resource, between repoints at cutting of a pine, a fur-tree, an aspen, an alder define in square metres which depend on length of a saw. At a saw in length 1000мм a resource - 4,5м 2 ; 1250 - 5; 1500 - 5,5 and 1750 - 6м 2 . After performance of a resource saw teeths should be sharp enough and suitable for the further work.
Cross-section saws have width of a cloth 20-25мм, a step of teeths - 4-5мм, height of teeths - 5-6мм, raspashnye for longitudinal pilenija width of a cloth - 50мм (it is possible more widely), a step of teeths - 5-6мм, height of teeths-6mm; the cloths mixed with a width 20 35мм height of teeths - 3мм; shipovye - width of a cloth - 35 50мм, a step of teeths - 3-4мм, height of teeths - 3-4 mm; vykruzhnye, or rotary, and joiner's fret saws with narrow cloths, width of a cloth - 4-12мм, a step of teeths - 2-4мм, height of teeths - 2-3мм, length of a cloth - 350-500мм are easier.
Luchkovye of a saw (fig. 11, include wooden (luchok) the machine tool and tense in it pilnoe a cloth. Such machine tool consists of two racks, two handles (shahovok), srednika (rasporki), zakrutki (latches) and bowstrings (a twine or a thin cord). The ends of a cloth of a saw fix in handles hairpins (nails) with otkusannymi the ends. Between racks put rasporku, the ends of racks pull together with a bowstring which twist and pull it a cloth of a saw to such degree that it did not reel during time pilenija and at the same time was not broke off from a strong tension. It is difficult to do by poorly tense cloth the equal has spent on drink.
For luchkovyh joiner's saws produce cloths with teeths of different height. Length of cloths - 685мм, with ears - 80, a thickness - 0,8-0,9мм. The width of cloths happens 12, 20, 25, 35, 50мм.
Joiners do cloths of saws of a various tape steel or from tapes lentochno-pilnyh machine tools, with teeths of various height and the form. For performance of carved works saws-melkozubki with height of teeths to 2мм are good.
Nozhovki , saws with handles (fig. 11, also widely apply in joiner's works. Cloths nozhevye to the handle are wider than different width, by the end - already. For a cross-section rough cutting serve wide nozhovki with different length of a cloth.
The Cloth nozhovki has length 615мм, a step of teeths - 12мм. A cloth nozhovki the elastic. Are available universal nozhovki with three replaceable cloths, with teeths for cross-section, longitudinal mixed pilenija, with length of cloths 400 and 450мм, width for the handle - 90, 105 and 132мм, at the end - 35, 30, 60мм; a thickness of a cloth - 1,15мм. These nozhovki are convenient for work, the resource between repoints equals 1м 2 .
Narrow nozhovki are intended for through propilov at performance of a various carving of a rectilinear and curvilinear outline. Length such nozhovok - 300-500мм with different width of a cloth; at the handle - 40-50мм, at the end 5-10мм; a thickness of a cloth - 1,5мм. The form of teeths is convenient for mixed or longitudinal pilenija.
Nozhovka with obushkom has length 300-350мм, constant width - 70-100мм, a thickness of a cloth - 0,5-0,8мм. Obushok gives to a cloth the raised rigidity, does not allow to it to fluctuate. Nozhovkoj carry out superficial prosaws, adjust connections and zapilivajut short thorns and eyes.
Nagradki apply to cutting out of superficial grooves and nests for shponok. A thickness of a cloth - 0,4-0,7, length - 100-120мм. A cloth produce from a piece of old saws and krepjat in the middle of the handle two screws. Teeths are intended for cross-section pilenija which carry out two hands.