Kinds of planes. Planes have the different name and appointment. One planes plane wood roughly, others - is pure. Rough planing carry out one sherhebelem, an average - sherhebelem and a plane, pure - sherhebelem, a plane, fugankom and tsiklej.
The Plane-sherhebel (fig. 17, apply to primary rough planing of wood. It removes a thick shaving and leaves superficial fillets on a wood surface. The sting has the rounded off form in width 35мм, length 180мм. The sizes kolodki-240X45 and 65мм.
17. Planes :
And - sherhebel; - planing; in - a planing order: 1 - it is correct; 2 - it is wrong; g - a plane with a single knife; d - planing fugankom; e - work as a face plane: 1 - a plane sole; 2 - work as a plane; 3 - planing with auxiliary bruskom; - a plane-tsinubel; z - a plane-zenzubel; and - a plane-faltsgebel; to - knifes for kalenoh; l - knifes for shtabgobelja; m - a plane-galtel; n - figareja; about - planes-gorbachi; p - shpuntubel (shpunt): 1 - a steel plate (crest); 2 - kolodka; 3 - cliques; 4 - a counternut; 5 - a knife; 6 - a directing lath; 7 - the screw; 8 - riflenie on a nut; 9 - a nut; 1о0 - brusok; 11 - a knife for crest planing; 12 - a knife for shpunta; r - gruntubel: 1 - a general view; 2 - work gruntubelem; 3 - vybiranie a groove a plane; 4 - vybiranie a groove a chisel in bruske; 5 - brusok with a chisel; with - napravka an agnail on a cycle
The Knife put in kolodku at an angle 45°. A mouth in width, considering from an edge, - 2±1мм. On kolodke there is a small horn and an emphasis, and also a stopper. At increase in width of a mouth the shaving can act in film in the thickness to 3мм. Strozhku it conduct not along fibres that often leads perestrozhke a material, and at an acute angle to a direction of fibres. Across fibres it is not recommended to plane, as turn out otshchepy on edges of boards and bruskov.
In an operating time a plane hold the right hand under a tail part of a knife, and left - for a horn (fig. 17. Planing carry out only movement of hands, on their full scope, in regular intervals pressing a plane. In an operating time it is necessary to watch, that the ends of planed preparation (a board, bruska etc. were not filled up.). In the beginning of planing by the left hand it is necessary to press downwards a forward part of a plane, and with the right hand to push a plane forward. Then a plane press in front and behind equally. In the end of planing press a back part of a plane (fig. 17,). If to do on the contrary the preparation ends sostragivajutsja more than follows, and preparation turns out convex or with a hump in the middle.
the Plane with a single knife (fig. 17, apply to secondary, purer planing of wood. Thus remove more thin shaving and level earlier ostrogannuju preparation sherhebelem. A knife sting rectilinear, width 50, length 180мм. Kolodka has length 240, width and height - 65мм. A knife put in kolodku at an angle 45° a mouth, considering from a sting, leave in the width 2мм. On kolodke there is a small horn, an emphasis and a stopper. A shaving remove in the thickness 0,05-0,1мм. Put a knife in letok precisely that the sting cut wood in all width, instead of separate edges. Many joiners sharpen a knife sting so that on corners was very small zakruglenie. Work as a plane the same as and sherhebelem.
the Plane with a double knife apply to purer planing of wood (end faces, cocky and svilevatyh surfaces).
Fuganok (fig. 17, apply to definitive pure planing, and also for prifugovki edges of various details. Length kolodki-750mm, width-80, height-70mm. From the back party kolodki krepjat the handle, and from a lobby - a stopper inserted from above kolodki. Width of a double knife - 60мм, put it in kolodku at an angle 45°. Width of a mouth-1,5, length of a knife-200 mm. During planing by the right hand hold fuganok for the handle, and left press a forward part kolodki, approximately about a stopper. At fugovanii fuganok remove back from the preparation end, give it progress and conduct forward. Fuganok it is not necessary to tear off from a planed surface, for one pass it removes a thin shaving in the form of a tape for all length of preparation. At planing of long preparations the working moves after a plane for all length of planed preparation.
Prostrogav (otfugovav) one site of preparation, pass to strozhke other site.
Polufuganok is similar on fuganok, but kolodka than it is shorter, already and more low, has the sizes 530x70x65мм. A knife double, width 50, length 180мм.
The Plane face (fig. 17, differs from a double plane basically that put its knife at an angle to a lateral face kolodki, and its mouth for an edge exit on a sole have not across a sole, and obliquely. A knife double. This plane not only it is convenient ostragivat end faces, but also to carry out usual planing as slantwise put knife facilitates work. Instead of a face plane it is possible to apply a double plane. End faces plane variously, at first to the middle on the one hand, then - towards, with another. Hold a plane at an angle to a planing direction that from preparation lateral faces was not having broken away and otshchepov. Often arrive so. In the end of end face planing put auxiliary brusok which protects from having broken away and oshchepov. All clamp it in a vice. Brusok put on 0,5-1мм above an end face of planed preparation.
рѕсрэюъ-чшэѕсхыі (fig. 17,) apply to planing of the details intended for pasting or pasting by their plywood, and also for planing svilevatoj wood. On a knife there are the grooves forming at sharpening small zubchiki. A knife put in kolodku at an angle 80° it allows without zadirov to process even svilevatuju wood. Length kolodki - 200мм, height - 65, width - 65мм.
If to insert in kolodku tsinubelja a knife from a double plane it is possible to smooth out definitively products from end faces in places svilevatyh and with teases. Such plane-shliftikom remove very thin shaving.
рѕсрэюъ-чхэчѕсхыі (fig. 17,) or a folding, apply for otborki quarters and folds, and also them zachistki. Length kolodki - 240, height - 80мм. A knife put in kolodku at an angle 45°. For a shaving exit sideways kolodki it is arranged letok. If a knife put directly, perpendicularly length kolodki, receive so-called a straight line zenzubel as which work along fibres or on an end face. If a knife put at an angle at length kolodki, receive so-called a plait zenzubel as which work across fibres.
For reception of width of a fold strictly on planned risk during initial planing kolodku it is necessary to hold with the left hand so that fingers moved together with the tool on an edge of a board or bruska. kolodki it is possible to provide a demanded direction by means of specially made overlay (rejki) which besides limits width of a fold. Krepjat an overlay to kolodke nails or screws. It smooth out the selected quarter or a fold.
рѕсрэюъ-¶рыічухсхыі (fig. 17,) apply for otborki quarters of certain width and depth. It differs from zenzubelja that its sole has a step quarter. The cheek located on a sole kolodki on the right, limits width, and a ledge at the left - depth of a quarter. Length kolodki - 240мм, width - 30, height - 80мм.
рѕсрэъш-ърыхтъш (fig. 17,) apply for figured strozhki obverse edges of details. The knife and the bottom part kolodki - a sole - have the form of a profile of the set figure. Kalevki happen the different form and width. Knifes at kalevok is better to produce from such marks of a steel which can be sharpened a file. The form of a sting of these knifes can be such that any brusok will not approach for their point. The length kolodki-240, height-60-70mm, and depends width on the form or width of a knife for figured strozhki.
Kalevkami vystragivajut various eaves under the form, platbands, plinths, frizovye frames, covers etc. More often knifes for kalevok are turned by joiners.
рѕсрэюъ-°=рсуюсхыі (fig. 17,) apply for zakruglenija obverse edges of boards, bruskov and vystragivanija narrow profile details (shtapikov) - thin brusochkov. SHtapikami close glutinous seams, backlashes in places of demountable connections, and also use for external registration of details.
рѕсрэюъ-уры=хыі (fig. 17,) apply to sample or vystragivanija on details of every possible fillets and dredging of various width, depth and radius zakruglenija. Length kolodki - 240мм, height - 50-70мм, width - different.
рѕсрэюъ-¶ѕэурЁхщ (fig. 17,) apply to planing of wide mowed down edges along the edges of the panels which have been stuck together from a file. The edge can be smooth or figured for what a plane sole carry out under the knife form. The width of a knife - to 90мм, is better to put it to a sole plane kolodki at an angle 15-20°. It facilitates performance of work and improves quality of panels. Length kolodki - 240мм, height - 50-70 mm, width - different.
рѕсрэъш-уюЁсрёш (fig. 17,) apply for vystrugivanija the concave or convex surfaces on various details. The sole kolodok can be the various form and radius. At wooden kolodok in the length 100-240мм curvature remains to a constant. Metal gorbachi are universal, their camber or concavity regulate adjusting screws.
Shpuntubel (fig. 17, apply for vystragivanija on edges or plasti details of a rectangular groove - shpunta and a crest on the necessary distance from edge. Has the most difficult device. Consists of three basic parts: kolodki with a knife, a directing lath and two screws with nuts and counternuts with which regulate distance between a knife and directing. The sole shpuntubelja represents the steel plate inserted from below in the thickness not less 3мм with a cut for a knife. In general for sample of grooves and crests of different width there is a various set of knifes with thickness of a plate from 3 to 15мм. Length kolodki - 200-240мм, width-15-20, height - 70-80мм.
Gruntubel (fig. 17, apply for vystragivanija a trapezoid groove, that is vybiranija wood from has spent on drink, executed across fibres nagradkoj. After wood sample by this tool the groove bottom remains pure and equal that it is impossible to receive at usual vybiranii a chisel. Many masters use instead of gruntubelja kolodku from sherhebelja, inserting into it narrower knife, or apply the chisels inserted into pieces bruskov or boards. The groove bottom in an average part is processed by these tools exactly enough. However edges of a bottom of a groove under slanting walls where a knife gruntubelja or a chisel do not reach, it is necessary to correct a chisel, cutting off the remained wood. In an operating time gruntubelja or chisels it is necessary to beat out and extend a knife gradually because of a sole kolodki as they should remove a shaving in the thickness no more 3мм.
Tsiklju (fig. 17, apply for zachistki or last operational development purely ostrogannyh surfaces tverdolistvennyh breeds of wood after their processing by a double plane, or shliftikom. TSikli - the scraping tool, instead of planing. They represent a steel plate in length 100-150мм, width 150 and thickness 1мм or a bit more thickly. TSiklju it is possible to make of cloths of old saws, manual cross-section, luchkovyh and tape. Cutting edge tsikli - the agnail, or a sting, direct strong pressing on tsiklju a piece of stronger steel of a chisel or a file with the ground off notch. These directing steel plates, prutki, chisels or files should be very well ground. If on them there will be scratches they will be transferred to an agnail, or a sting, and tsiklja will smooth out wood with defect. An edge tsikli preliminary well sharpen and correct on oselke, as a plane knife, or from three parties (an edge and two plasti). In this case a working edge tsikli sharpen at right angle, forming two sharp rectangular edges on which direct an agnail. The cutting corner tsikli reaches to 90° owing to what it scratches out rather thin shaving from wood, giving surfaces smoothness and cleanliness.
In an operating time tsiklju hold two hands with corresponding pressing. At tsiklevanii figured details apply figured tsikli. TSikljam give the necessary form.