Flat figured planing . Planing carry out the various tool: flat - sherhebelem, unary and double planes, a face plane, fugankom, polufugankom and shliftikom; figured - zenzubelem, a fold-gebelem, gruntubelem, shpuntubelem, kalevkami, gorbachami and other tools. It is necessary to plane up and down fibres, and also it is perpendicular to fibres (face planing).
After a preparation cutting on its surface there is a weight of various defects: roughnesses, roughnesses etc. All correct it planing. It is necessary to plane always in a direction of fibres, therefore before planing preparation examine, define a direction of fibres. Then preparation strongly fix on a workbench or verstachnoj to a board that provides safety in work.
We Will consider technics of planing of various preparations. Planing bruskov or boards of rectangular section (fig. 18. Having planed the one (first) party of preparation sherhebelem, a plane and fugankom, check it approximately. For what rise against light, put preparation to an eye or to it put exactly stroganuju (fugovannuju) a ruler or an edge fuganka. If there are discrepancies, they are corrected. Then on this party a simple pencil tag in the form of a curve. After that plane the second party precisely under a square. After check on it also tag. As the width bruska or boards should correspond to the certain size a surface gauge on the first party spend to risk and on it is strict in a square plane third to old. After check of this party it mark and only then a surface gauge define a thickness of preparation, spend risks on the second and third parties. On these risks plane the fourth party. Correctness of preparation check a square.
Correctness of planing of a surface of a board check rejkoj and approximately.
Wide preparations, for example, boards, plane zahvatkami or parts but so that there were no admissions.
18. Flat and figured planing :
And - planing bruskov or boards of rectangular section: 1 - check strozhki approximately; 2 - otvodka risks rejsmuom; 3 - check bruska a square; - planing thin brusochkov: 1 - brusochki: in - planing in a collum; 8 - planing mogogrannyh bruskov: 1 - manufacturing trihedral bruskov; 2 - pentahedral brusok; 3 - shestigrannyj brusok; d - planing thin bruskov with kalevhami: 1 - bruski; 2 - spetsialnoe stuslo; 3 - ukrepleni bruska in stuslo on hairpins; 4 - planing; e - planing of various preparations: 1 - kalevka; 2 - galtel; 3 - the semiplaten; 4 kanneljury; 5 - semiplatens; 6 - planing gorbachami
Planing thin wooden brusochkov (fig. 18, different length and width in the thickness from 3 to 10мм. To plane such brusochki or rejki in the usual way inconveniently because they are curved and break. There are some ways of their manufacturing.
The First way. First of all plane from four parties preparation, for example a board, the necessary thickness which width should be equal to width brusochkov. Then a surface gauge spend risks and on them from two parties of a board saw off two brusochka at which plane only one party. That they at planing have not broken, one or two ends brusochkov cut off on a moustache and krepjat carnations to a workbench or exactly planed board.
The Second way. At first cut brusochki or rejki, then from three parties strengthen them on one or on neskolku pieces nearby nestroganoj the party upwards on stroganuju a board. To plane lateral faces krepjat laths on such distance from a sole, should be what thickness brusochki or rejki. Having strengthened the ends brusochkov or reek nails, them plane. Thus receive absolutely identical on a thickness brusochki or rejki.
The Third way. Produce special stuslo, consisting of a board of the necessary width, two brusochkov, filled on this board of such thickness which should have brusochki or rejki. The distance between filled brusochkami should equal to width of a knife of the tool, that is a plane or fuganka. Sideways beat directing brusochek on which will move kolodka a plane the lateral face.
Planing of preparations in a collum (fig. 18, it is possible to carry out at any angle: direct or slanting. Even skilled masters always have a collum which raises labour productivity and promotes reception of the necessary cleanliness of processed preparations. The technics of planing is shown in drawing.
Planing many-sided bruskov is shown in drawing 18,
Trihedral bruski produce so. At first plane square brusok, saw it on a diagonal on two parts. The sawn parties plane.
Pentagonal bruski is better to produce by strengthening trihedral bruskov on the square.
Shestigrannye bruski plane from square or round preparations. For this purpose at end faces of preparations draw a circle, divide it into six parts, spend risks and on them cut, cut down or sostragivajut superfluous wood at first on figure 1, then 2 and 3.
We Will consider figured planing of various preparations.
Planing thin bruskov with kalevkami (fig. 18. These bruski name facings (apportions). They can be smooth with slightly removed facets or with kalevkami. That bruski did not fluctuate at vystrugivanii kalevok, for them it is necessary to arrange special stuslo, consisting of two boards with good otfugovannymi edges and plastju. These boards fasten together so that they have formed a direct and identical quarter on all length, corresponding on the size specified brusku. In the bottom part of a quarter, that is in the bottom board, hammer some sharp hairpins which should act because of a quarter bottom approximately on half of thickness kalevki, and is easier, that hairpins did not act on a face sheet kalevki and have not damaged and have not blunted a knife sting.
Preparation nasazhivajut on these hairpins easy blows of a hammer through a board or brusok not to make dents. After that sostragivajut an edge bruska a plane and then plane a surface bruska kalevkoj, as is shown in drawing. After planing brusok cautiously remove.
Planing of various preparations is shown in drawing (18. Eaves carry out karniznikom or kalevkoj the big width. At first plane bruski the necessary sizes, chamfer one edge and further plane kalevkoj.
Galtel vystragivajut from bruska the necessary form and the size a plane of the same name. The semiplaten vystrugivajut a plane which knife has the return form.
Columns with kanneljurami apply to furnish of houses from lateral aspect or from a facade, for registration of a porch, terraces, arbours, platbands etc. The column is a round column with planed on its length kanneljurami, that is small galteljami, the divided thongs. The width and depth kanneljur happen different.
At first plane absolutely round log, mark on it kanneljury with thongs between them on both end faces. Then punch namelennym a cord risks or plan a pencil on good stroganoj rejke with the subsequent vystragivaniem galtelju kanneljur. The knife for kanneljur is desirable for making on their size. Except round columns do also square columns.
When instead of a column half a column saw on length on two parts is necessary or do half, sawing at first a log on two parts.
Instead of heavy columns and semicolumns it is possible to make lungs. For what do two-three wooden circles or rings, fill on them boards or bruski the necessary thickness that they densely adjoined to each other, and from their face sheet ostragivajut, giving the round form. Then plane kanneljury.
Round boards, rings and half rings, ellipses and ovals plane gorbachami.
It is necessary to remember that any tool is necessary for applying strictly to destination. Some tools with small additions can be used and for other purposes. For example, to a plane sole privertyvajut screws an additional overlay of the convex or concave form, receiving thereby gorbachi.