After preliminary natural drying of a log and ranges saw in a longitudinal direction on several parallel planes (fig. 3). Thus receive various saw-timbers: boards, bars, bruski, gorbyl, plates and quarter timbers.
3. Saw-timbers and kinds of boards :
And - a plate; - a quarter timber; in - gorbyl; g - dvuhkantnyj a bar; d - chetyrehkantnyj a bar with obzolom; e - a pure bar; - trehkantnyj a bar; z - an edging board; and - a semiedging board with obzolom; to - not edging boards;
1 - an edge; 2 - edges; 3 - left or internal plast; 4 - right or external plast; 5 - obhol; 6 - sordtsevinnaja a board; 7 - lateral boards
Boards happen in the thickness from 16мм and more and share on not edging, semiedging and edging. Not edging boards receive at a log or range cutting in a longitudinal direction. Edges at such boards sharp, and width - different.
At semiedging boards the edge part remains not sawn round (obzol) and one end happens already. There is it because saw off gorbyli a little already, than for edging boards.
Edging boards receive, when the log or a range preliminary saw round from two parties that at sawing up edging boards without obzola and turned out identical width completely.
In practice of a board by thickness 20-30мм name tesom, thickness 20мм - the twenty, 25мм - djujmovkoj, and 30мм - tridtsatkoj.
To raise a rating pilomateriala, at sawing up a trunk core often cut.
Plasti of boards (plane) turned to a core, joiners subdivide on left, or internal, and turned to a bark - on right, or external. The purest after processing a part plasti name obverse, and opposite to it - return.
At performance of joiner's works in the house edging boards and bruski, and also chetyrehkantnye bars are most convenient.
Bars - saw-timbers in the thickness and in the width more 100мм. According to number of the sawn round parties bars happen two - three- and chetyrehkantnye.
Bruski - edging pilomaterial in the thickness to 100мм and width of no more double thickness.
Gorbyl - the lateral parts of the log which has been cut off at longitudinal sawing up. Can be a different thickness and width: with komlevoj log parts - the thickest and wide, in otrube - the most thin and narrow.
Gorbyl apply to the device of fences, walls of sheds, for nastilki nakata on garret overlapping, filings of heat-insulated floors.
Boards, bruski and bars divide into 5 grades. In joiner's business use 1st and 2nd grades, in building - all grades.
In individual building often apply so-called plates and quarter timbers. The first receive, sawing a log half-and-half (on two half), that is lengthways, the second - sawing plates on two parts.
Preparations are boards or bruski, cut the certain size with corresponding allowances on processing and shrinkage.
The Calibrated preparations processed on planing machine tools, name milled or stroganymi, and sometimes shpuntovannymi. They can be with a flat profile, that is ostrogannye from different directions, and also in a groove and a crest, in a quarter, in a groove and a crest with a figured profile. At dense splachivanii they adjoin to each other the edges, forming a plane without gleams and backlashes. Such preparations apply for nastilki floors, filing of ceilings, a covering of external walls wooden rublenyh or bruschatyh houses, manufacturing of eaves etc.
To Store saw-timbers for atmospheric drying to humidity of 22% also it is necessary in the stacks, lifted over level of the earth not less than on 50см. Columns are better for applying stone or concrete with packing on their top of beams, boards, roofing felt or roofing material. To stack boards follows on dry linings from the same breed of wood and necessarily identical thickness. Between boards and bruskami there should be intervals in 20-25мм. The laid stack is necessary for covering or storing in a dry shed. At drying saw-timbers can warp, be surprised blue and crack from end faces.
To slow down moisture evaporation through end faces and to protect thereby from rastreskivanija, boards, bruski, logs from end faces it is necessary zabelit a chalk solution, to exhaust or cover with putties. Putties prepare from different materials which take weight parts, for example wood pitch and a chalk on 33 parts, drying oils and to exhaust-pushenki on 17 parts or wood pitch - 83 and to exhaust-pushenki - 17. Putties are more reliable.
End faces of boards, bruskov and logs it is possible to cover with special boards, to wrap up roofing felt, roofing material, pergaminom etc. Often there is a question: when it is more expedient to dry a material, in integral boards or after their cutting on preparations? To dry preparations, raskroennye on length and width, it is more favourable, as they dry up in 2-3 times faster. Preparations slightly ostrogannye dry even faster, thus it is necessary to leave allowances on their length, width and a thickness.
Masters-joiners distinguish a seasoned wood from crude on a sound and weight. The seasoned wood publishes a clear, pure sound and it is easier crude.
To Apply wood below 1st and 2nd grades it is not recommended, as suchkovatost and other defects take away a lot of time from the joiner.
Pitch knots, serjanku and zasmoly it is necessary to cut out and close up in bottom bruskah external covers and transoms, in pass places kalevok and in folds, and also in connections and in places prirezki devices. Saw-timbers with small blue use in products, excepting manufacturing from them otlivov, gorbylkov and fortochnyh bruskov.
Plywood is layered kleenaja the wood consisting of three, five and more layers lushchenogo of an interline interval, located perpendicularly each other. Number of layers of plywood more often the odd. In comparison with saw-timbers plywood possesses a number of advantages: it is not jarred on, not rastreskivaetsja, easily bends.
Plywood Sheets have next sizes, mm: length - 1220-2440, width - 725-1525, a thickness - 1,5-18. Produce 5 grades.
Lushchenyj in the form of a continuous tape receive an interline interval at lushchenii churakov on special machine tools. A lushchenyj interline interval lindens, an ash-tree, an oak, a beech make of a birch, an alder, pines etc. An interline interval tape cut on sheets of the set size, a thickness of an interline interval - 0,35-4мм.
Stroganyj receive an interline interval by planing churakov on special machine tools in the form of sheets in the width equal to a thickness churaka. With this interline interval basically revet (paste) the sheets of plywood executed from lushchenogo of an interline interval. Revet plywood from one or two parties with an interline interval from an oak, a nut, a pear and other breeds of a tree with a beautiful structure. The revetted plywood is called as decorative, produce its 1st and 2nd grades. Sheets of decorative plywood can be usual or shlifovannymi from one or two parties. Except an interline interval plywood revet with film materials in a combination to a decorative paper or without it. Use such plywood for manufacturing of furniture, panels, partitions, ceilings, and it usually do not finish.
Bakelizirovannuju produce plywood from birch lushchenogo the interline interval which has been stuck together by synthetic pitches. This plywood differs raised vodo - atmosferostojkostju and durability.