The more sharply the tool, the it cuts wood easier and more purely, and the joiner gets tired less. On a measure zatuplenija the tool sharpen on bruskah or tochile. Sharpened it can be put in action manually or from any engine.
To sharpening apply natural either artificial stones or circles (sharpened) the different form and granularity. The grain is larger, the metal, and on the contrary faster grinds off. However large grains leave on the tool traces in the form of scratches or jags. Fine grains grind off these traces and give to the tool a necessary sharpness that is reached at editing on oselke. Oselkami can serve bruski slate or brusochki for a point and editing of razors. Sharpen the tool more often in the wet way with water or oil and it is very rare in the dry way when it is necessary to grind off at a knife or a chisel a new facet. At a point it is necessary to be dry way attentive not to release, that is not to lower durability of a steel.
For rough sharpening are suitable grinding bruski or sharpened from a stone-sandstone from the river of Pechora. They have large grains and remove metal quickly enough. Correct the tool at first on fine-grained bruske, then - on oselke. After editing on oselke the facet should have shining, as though a smooth surface, and on a cutting edge, or a sting, should not be zubchikov. A tool sharpness define a finger, slightly spending on a sting or on a nail.
During tool sharpening acute-angled grains of sand of any stone, and are easier an abrasive, remove a metal layer, but grind off also. Thus they drop out of the nests, baring thereby sides of new grains. At a point in the wet way the tool does not heat up, and the dropped out grains of sand or abrasive grains, and also the ground off metal watch off. On tochilah from sandstone or on oselkah to sharpen without water or oil it is impossible, as the ground off parts of metal fill a time bruska or sharpened, and it practically fails. To result sharpened in an original form, its surface should be ground off other abrasive material.
Sharpening on bruskah knifes of planes, chisels and chisels (fig. 21. Brusok strongly fix, moisten with water, take hands tools and, pressing them to brusku densely facet, start to drive back and forth with respective pressing. On wide bruske the tool drive circular motions before agnail occurrence, then correct on oselke.
21. Sharpening of knifes of planes, chisels, chisels, drills :
And - sharpening on bruske; - editing on oselke; in - agnail removal; 8 - a template for check of corners of sharpening; d - quality of sharpening; e - sharpening on tochile with the adaptation for knife deduction in certain position
Editing on oselke (fig. 21, carry out rectilinear or circular motions. If at editing oselok moisten with water, it quickly wears out, if grease with lubricating oil, wears out less. Correct on oselke until the facet does not become shining. For removal of a possible agnail the tool correct on oselke, but from a facet underside (fig. 21,).
Each tool has a home sharpenings which check a template executed from plywood or plastic (fig. 21.
Straightforwardness of an edge check by overlaying on its edges (on a sting) rulers, and right angle presence between a sting and an edge of a knife or a chisel edge - a square (fig. 21.
Sharpening on tochile (fig. 21. Sharpened apply different diameter, but thickness not less 60мм, that is on width of a knife for fuganka. The thickness can be more and less, but on the last to sharpen less conveniently. Sharpened should be well centered, fixed on an axis, be in water and rotate with frequency of rotation no more than 80 turns in a minute. The trough under tochilom should be strong. For sharpened it is recommended to arrange a little table on which should be bruski and oselok.
During sharpening the tool should be washed by water, otherwise it heats up and released, loses training and quickly tupitsja.
At sharpening the tool hold against rotation sharpened, all time under one corner to a working surface of a grinding stone, watching that it adjoined to tochilu all facet. For this purpose apply various adaptations. Elementary of them - homutik with a roller and the tightening screw. The tool hold one or two hands.
Knifes for figured planing sharpen on bruskah or tochile if it allows a cutting edge or a sting. Otherwise knifes sharpen velvet files of the different form. Knifes fine-grained brusochkami the different form definitively correct or produce under the knife form brusochek from firm breed of a tree, impregnate with oil, remove its surpluses, strew nazhdachnoj powder and correct it bruskom the tool.
Sharpening and editing of axes . Axes happen to the direct or rounded off edge. To sharpen axes it is better nasazhennymi on toporishche. It is recommended to sharpen them on two descents: one - on 38мм from a sting of the edge, the second - on 18мм. The double facet in the width equal to 2,5-3 thickness of an edge turns out. Sharpen an axe until its facet will not be equal, without jags and sailings and does not form a sharp sting of an edge. Quality of sharpening check approximately or to the touch a finger. Correct an axe on oselke manually until the agnail left after a point will be removed.
Sharpening of drills . Some drills can be sharpened on fine-grained brusochkah. For kalevok produce from a firm tree a file of the necessary form, moisten it in oil, remove its surpluses, strew nazhdachnoj powder and sharpen. Drills (only not on metal) do more poorly files, therefore they can be sharpened various files or nadfiljami. All tool, and especially drills, it is impossible to lead up to full zatuplenija. At the slightest zatuplenii it is necessary to grind and direct on oselke.
Drills on metal sharpen or on round abrasive disks or on brusochkah the different form (nazhdachnyh, korundovyh, etc.). After the working day of a drill it is necessary to wipe a dry rag, and at long storage cutting part is desirable for oiling or tavotom, protecting from rzhavlenija.