Usually carry out by means of thorns and eyes (fig. 31). Shipovye connections happen unary, double and threefold. The shipovaja detail consists of a thorn 1 with zaplechikami 2 (length of a thorn - 3, a thickness - 4 and width - 5мм), and an eye - from an eye 6 limited to cheeks 7. Instead of an eye often apply nests about (fig. 31, and. An unary thorn to make easier, but it less strong in comparison with a double or threefold thorn.
The Thickness of a thorn in angular connections can be accepted in following limits: for odnoshipovyh connections - from 1 / 3 to 3 / 7 thickness bruska, for dvuhshipovyh - from 1 / 5 to 2 / 9 , for trehshipovyh - usually 1 / 7 thickness bruska. The width of eyes should equal to a thickness of a thorn, and to be such that thorns with small effort entered into eyes easier.
Zaplechiki should be identical and equal 1 / 3 - 2 / 7 an unary thorn and 1/5-1/6 thickness bruska a double thorn.
Nests for a deaf thorn should be on 2-3мм more lengths of a thorn. It is necessary for preparation of connection and for running off there surpluses of glue. Thorns carry out at horizontal bruskov eyes - at vertical. Except these thorns depending on a thickness and length of details apply thorns plug-in, cylindrical or squared, thickness 8-15мм in the length 60-120мм.
The Thickness of a thorn should be such that it with small effort entered into an eye. If it is thicker than an eye or a nest, at a thorn insert in them a detail raskleetsja. When the thorn is more thin an eye or a nest connection turns out weak. Sometimes such thorn put on a thin strong paper on glue that increases durability of connection.
31. Shipovye connections: and - an unary thorn :
1 - a thorn; 2 - zaplechniki; 3 - length of a thorn; 4 - a thickness of a thorn; 5 - width of a thorn; 6 - an eye; 7 - cheeks; 8 - a nest; - a double thorn; in - a threefold thorn; g - carrying out risok a comb; d - position of a cloth of a saw on bruske at zapilivanii thorns and eyes; e - lines has spent on drink in thorns and eyes; - zapilivanie thorns and eyes; z - cutting of cheeks, are marked by letters of detail SH - shipovye, P - proushinnye
To accuracy of performance shipovyh connections make strict demands. Shipovye connections carry out in such sequence First of all, is exact on the size plane bruski square and squared. All parties bruskov check a square.
Then on the ends bruskov by means of a comb spend risks. Applying a comb, risks spend for once, irrespective of the fact which shipovoe connection: unary, double or threefold. Risks spend on two opposite sides bruska.
When apply a surface gauge brusochki it is necessary perestanavlivat. That risks were identical on all ends bruskov, a surface gauge at first spend them on all bruskam from two parties. Then brusochki a surface gauge rearrange and precisely also spend risks on all ends. Thus, correctly arranged comb more proizvoditelna also is convenient (fig. 31. As length of a thorn take to an equal thickness bruska after carrying out by a comb or a surface gauge (longitudinal) risok it is necessary to spend also horizontal (cross-section) risks a pencil or shilom on a square, limiting this length. On bruskah with eyes also spend risks, limiting their height which should equal to width of a thorn.
After drawing of all risok on the ends bruskov them fix in a workbench and start to zapilovke thorns and eyes luchkovoj a saw or nozhovkoj with a wide cloth. A luchkovaja saw proizvoditelnee nozhovki.
At zapilovke the saw cloth should be nearby risks and its line to remain untouched, that is the saw should go from risks. zapilivanija thorns the saw should go to time from their lateral aspect, and at an eye - with internal (fig. 31. After propilivanija there is a dark strip has spent on drink (fig. 31,).
In an initial stage zapilivanija arrange has washed down, that is deepen a saw cloth on 2-3мм in a thickness of wood. For this purpose a saw cloth put from risks on 1 / 4 its thickness, approximately on 1 / 10 mm, and press to it a nail of a thumb of the left hand. A saw at first conduct on itself, doing by that has washed down, at which saw teeths slightly run into a tree. Then a saw short movements conduct forward, gradually deepening it in wood on 2-3мм. In process of saw deepening in has spent on drink pilenie carry out on full scope. It is necessary to saw without pressing a saw (fig. 31, differently it evades from the direction (especially luchkovaja). In an operating time a saw direct to a proper place by turn luchka. Correct raspil without a warp should be from both parties of a thorn or an eye.
Having executed all prosaws, at shipovyh details cut cheeks (fig. 31, thus the line has spent on drink should be strictly at right angle or with skosom inside, rather the reverse.
Thorns in eyes should incorporate without an additional erasure a chisel to the corresponding density. Cleanliness raspila depends on a saw.
It should be sharp, with the small, equally dissolved teeths. Cheeks cut only at shipovyh details. At unary thorns wood do not hollow, at double - once in the middle between two thorns, at threefold hollow out two times between three thorns. At proushinnyh details carry out only dolblenie.
In all cases in shipovyh and proushinnyh details, and also in nests to hollow wood follows on risks at nests and on lines has spent on drink at thorns and eyes. Dolblenie carry out for two receptions. At first a joiner's chisel or a chisel put so that the edge was nearby risks and did not cut off it, and the tool is put a facet in a nest, or by eyes. The tool edge should defend from risks on 2-3мм that protects wood from smjatija. That the cut wood was easier taken out and the tool did not break, a shaving remove in the thickness no more 5мм.
Cutting and choosing wood, reach half of depth of a nest or an eye, and then start to dolbleniju from an underside. Dolblenie from two parties it is more convenient and easier. After full removal of wood start to podrezke the remained. For this purpose the tool should be sharp. Put it strictly after risk and cut off surpluses of wood, simultaneously smoothing out a chisel all roughnesses. Having executed angular connections and having checked up dry, connect them on glue.
Except direct thorns, apply a so-called thorn in "ырё=юёъшэ §тюё=".
the Thorn "ырё=юёъшэ §тюё=". Such thorn receive strong at an angle of slope of a cheek from a thorn vertical 10° (fig. 32). If the angle of slope big, a cheek can be chopped off, and connection will turn out fragile. When the angle of slope of a cheek is less 10° a thorn "ырё=юёъшэ §тюё=" does not differ almost from the direct.
The Thorn carry out, as is shown in drawing 32, and. The nest is carried out in the size on a neck of a thorn depth on 3-5мм more by than its lengths.
32. A thorn "ырё=юёъшэ §тюё=":
And - normal; - with rasklinkoj (the beginning and the end rasklinivanija are shown)
Then a thorn saw through, forming a nest "ырё=юёъшэр §тюё=р". A wedge produce so that a thorn, without having reached to the bottom nests on the size specified above, rasklinilsja and has densely nestled on nest walls (fig. 32, 6). A thorn insert into a nest, a wedge - in has spent on drink, all grease with glue. At vgonke a thorn bruska in a nest the wedge expands a thorn and by that keeps it.
This connection strong but to repair it without thorn cutting it is impossible. Brusok it is necessary to saw off and insert into it the made thorn on glue in the cleared away nest simultaneously.