the Tool for a carving. the Workplace for woodcarving can be organised indoors or in the street under a canopy. Light should fall on the left side, well shining a processed detail.
For work it is desirable to arrange a simple workbench from any wood with a cover in width of 500-700 mm and different length. On a cover of such width the detail lies densely, without being outweighed. Workbench height at level of elbows of the carver, working standing, should make about 1000-1100 mm. For work, sitting it is necessary to make a strong stool in height of 650-750 mm from a floor with the prolegs located at height of 200-300 mm from a floor. The workbench should be massive and not shake in an operating time. That the detail strongly kept on a workbench during carving performance, it fix to a cover nails, clamps or special derzhavkami the different form.
Materials for a carving. To a carving apply the wood of coniferous breeds containing pitch and more proof to atmospheric influences is more often. Except coniferous breeds of a tree apply also deciduous, as: a linden at the age of 70-80 years, a poplar at the age of 40-50 years, a maple at the age of 90-100 years, an alder, a mountain ash, an ash-tree, an oak, etc.
Wood should be good, without kososloja, suchkovatosti then it does not break and is not chopped off.
Humidity of wood should be not above 15%, less - it is better. More the seasoned wood is hard cut and often chopped off, however the paint on it keeps more strongly. Crude wood is more softly, easier cut, but, drying up, is jarred on and bursts.
The Tool for soft wood should be very sharp. Firm wood is cut more hard, but the carving turns out purer though the tool happens less sharp.
The Cut of wood during a cutting of logs on boards, bruski can be tangential and radial. On a tangential cut to cut more hard, than on radial, but the carving turns out more beautifully that promoted by a tree structure. It should be considered at carving furnish by transparent materials, for example varnishes.
It is not recommended to smooth out at first preparation by a grinding skin, and then to carry out a carving. At polishing abrasive grains get to a time of wood and the tool quickly tupitsja. All it reduces labour productivity. To smooth out wood follows tsikljami. They well clean wood of firm breeds and is worse - soft.
Soft breeds of wood are recommended to be preserved, impregnating protivognilostnymi with structures and painting oil and other paints.
Depending on a kind of a carving except boards apply bruski n logs of different length and a thickness.
For fastening of carved details nails, screws, waterproof glues and other materials are required.
Depending on complexity the carving can be executed usual joiner's or plotnichnym the tool which has been considered in the head "Ђчую=ютыхэшх wooden шэё=Ёѕьхэ=р" and also special, more convenient. To such tool carry knifes-kosjachkp, chisels, chisels-corners, rasps, chekany and fret saws.
All tools should be well ground on bruske and are directed on oselke.
At knifes-kosjachkov (fig. 96, or cutting torches, a working cutting part, or a sting, sharpen from two parties, that is on two facets. First two - flat, or long, the second - narrow, or short, with a sharpening corner 20°. The edge not direct, and has a corner skosa at one knife at an angle 45° at another - 60°. The length of an edge should act because of the handle or the handle on 50-70 mm. The handle of 100-120 mm, produce width from a tree or plastic in length 20-30 mm, thickness of 12-15 mm. The handle form should be convenient for a hand, without acute angles and edges.
96. Tools for performance of a various carving :
And - knifes-kosjachki: 1 - a sock; 2 - a heel; - chisels different; 1 - primye; 2 - semicircular; 3 - kljukarzy; in - chisels-corners; g - rasps; d - chekany; e - fret saws
The cutting part kosjachka has sock (a cutter acute angle) and a heel (obtuse angle). During a carving the sock always moves forward, and the heel can be raised.
Knifes-kosjachki are especially effective at performance of a geometrical carving.
Chisels (fig. 96, - flat and semicircular sharpen at an angle 18-20°. To work as such chisels it is easier, than chisels with more abrupt sharpening.
Besides, use chisels-kljukarzy with the bent short cloths of different width.
Them apply there where it is impossible to perform work as usual tools.
Chisels-corners (fig. 96, two chisels with the welded cloths at an angle 50-70° represent;. Width of cloths - from 5 to 15 mm. Apply for prorezki veins and lines in the form of flutes of different width.
These chisels buy or produce the hands. The big role is played by tool training. Curvilinear chisels should be tempered so that they were hardly sharpened by a file. Insufficient training leads fast zatupleniju, and practically to an infinite point and tool editing.
Rasps (fig. 96, are steel cores of different length and the form with notches in the form of small zubchikov. Rasps move To an operating time back and forth, accordingly pressing them and by that, grinding off wood, giving it this or that form. After rasps remains melkosherohovataja a surface.
Apply to furnish of various surfaces which are difficult for processing other tool.
Chekany (fig. 96, are the steel cores having on the working ends drawings. Putting on chekanam blows of the necessary force, finish a background of carved products from a tree. CHekanami carry out drawings of small depth, usually 5-6 mm.
Fret saws (fig. 96, happen manual and foot. Them apply for propilivanija in wood of every possible curves.
Except fret saws apply and nozhovki with narrow cloths, usually width to 5 mm and thickness of 1-1,5 mm. Teeths are recommended to be sharpened for longitudinal or mixed pilenija. At usual luchkovogo a fret saw one end of a cloth of a saw krepjat it is normal, that is tightly in the handle, the second - a hook, that is do demountable. It is necessary, as the saw cloth should be inserted into apertures often.
In an operating time teeths manual lobzikovyh saws should cut wood in a direction from themselves, and a foot fret saw - from top to down.
Machine tools for fret saws can be wooden and steel. Steel machine tools pull a cloth of a saw the elasticity. Wooden machine tools pull a cloth of a saw by a twine twisting, that is a bowstring with the help zakrutki or latches how at luchkovyh saws. The saw teeths are larger, the more roughly lines has spent on drink, and on the contrary.
When it is necessary to insert a saw into preparation for propilivanija curves, preliminary bore through an aperture into which insert a saw cloth. Then a cloth insert into the machine tool, hook for the handle, pull a bowstring and start to pileniju.
The Foot fret saw arrange a little in another way. In a workbench or a board drill an aperture for a fret saw cloth. Over an aperture suspend a twisted spring or strengthen a trunk or a bough of a tree from springing wood. Certainly, it is more convenient for attaching to a wall. On a floor krepjat a pedal. One end of a saw krepjat sharnirno to a floor, the second - to a lead - to a wire piece, to which krepjat a file. The second end of a file krepjat also to a lead which attach to a spring. Saw teeths should be directed downwards, to a floor.
By pressing a pedal the saw cloth moves ahead downwards and saws through preparation. At pedal clearing drank a spring rises upwards. Repeating operation, pressing a pedal, carry out pilenie. Preparation at this time hold hands and direct riskoj on a saw cloth. That the saw was steady, over a workbench aperture krepjat lugs-directing, and the saw cloth passes this place, without being bent. However and it often leads to saw breakage.